د/ايمان زغلول قاسم

استاذ تكنولوجيا التعليم المشارك بكلية التربية بالزلفي

book B35

synthesis, and evaluation. Here, students are required to apply their acquired knowledge in
new situations, which is called transfer (Smith & Ragan, 2005). Smith and Ragan state that
KR is most suitable for declarative knowledge, that KCR can facilitate both declarative
knowledge and intellectual skills acquisition and that EF is the most appropriate for obtaining
intellectual skills.
Many variables influence the relation between feedback and learning. Timmers and
Veldkamp (2011) categorize these variables into characteristics of the task (e.g., task
difficulty), characteristics of the feedback intervention (as discussed in paragraph 3.1.2), and
characteristics of the learner (e.g., engagement in feedback). Their study shows that the extent
to which students pay attention to the feedback from a CBA for learning can vary. Their focus
depends, for example, on the length of the assessment and whether or not the student
answered the item correctly. These findings show that students do not inevitably engage with
feedback. This needs to be considered, since the mindful engagement of feedback is thought
to be crucial for promoting learning (Bangert-Drowns, Kulik, Kulik, & Morgan, 1991).
3.2. Method
3.2.1 Procedure
The procedure for this study is based on the method for executing systematic reviews
in the social sciences as proposed by Petticrew and Roberts (2006). The review process
includes three phases. First, the research question is defined, the databases and search terms
are chosen, the literature search is carried out, the inclusion criteria are defined, and,
eventually, the studies found in the literature search are selected using the inclusion criteria.
Next, the characteristics of the selected studies are analysed using a data-extraction form. This
implies that the same data are gathered from all the selected studies. Also, the quality of the
selected studies is assessed in this phase in order to determine how much weight should be
given to the study‘s findings. Subsequently, the conclusions of the different studies are
brought together and synthesized using a qualitative method (narrative analysis). This implies
that a systematic description of the study results is given in which the individual results of
studies are presented schematically. These results are integrated in order to draw the final
conclusion.
3.2.2 Databases and Search Terms
For the literature search,4 four databases were used: ERIC, PsycInfo, Scopus, and Web
of Science. These are the most commonly used databases for educational research. The search
terms were determined by using a thesaurus and by analysing terminology used in references
to relevant studies. The search terms were very specifically defined in order to obtain as many
relevant hits as possible. Search terms included terms related to CBA or computer-based
learning environments (e.g., computer-based assessment, computer-based instruction,
computer-based formative assessment, etc.), and terms related to feedback (e.g., formative
assessment). The exact search string can be found in Appendix 3A.

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