د/ايمان زغلول قاسم

استاذ تكنولوجيا التعليم المشارك بكلية التربية بالزلفي

book B36

Search terms related to CBA were searched for in every field from each database.
Search terms related to feedback were searched for in the title, abstract, or keyword fields.
This is because if the main goal of the study is related to feedback, it can be assumed the term
would be mentioned in at least one of these search fields. As well, the search in Scopus was
restricted to the social sciences. Finally, in Web of Science, the search was narrowed down to
terms related to CBA that appeared as topics as well as terms related to feedback that
appeared in titles.
3.2.3 Inclusion Criteria
In order to select the relevant studies from the bulk of studies found, useful and clear
inclusion criteria were needed. After a short field trial, the following inclusion criteria were
chosen:
1. The study has been published in the English language;
2. The study has been published in a journal article;
3. The dependent variable in the study is the learning outcomes of the students
(achievement);
4. The main goal of the study is to compare the effects of different feedback interventions
(of which at least one is written feedback) in a computer-based environment on the
learning outcomes of individual students;
5. The study has been published in a journal that is listed in the Social Science Citations
Index or Social Science Citations Index Expanded (Thomson Reuters, 2010).
The first inclusion criterion aimed to select only studies that have a high degree of
accessibility. If a study is accessible, this will increase the chance of making a contribution to
the scientific knowledge within a certain field.
By using the second inclusion criterion, studies like reports, dissertations, or
conference proceedings were removed from the selection. Regarding these kinds of
documents, it is not clear if and how they have been reviewed. Therefore, it is unknown
whether these studies live up to basic scientific standards. This step served to establish a
rough initial selection of relevant types of studies.
The third inclusion criterion resulted in the selection of studies in which the learning
outcomes of students is the dependent variable. Existing review studies were excluded in this
study. However, some still contributed to creating the theoretical framework for analysing the
results of this study (e.g., Shute, 2008).
By assessing the studies using the fourth criterion, studies with no written feedback
were excluded from the selection. Also, studies that focus on feedback that is not provided
within a computer-based environment were excluded. Studies that focus on feedback by
students for teachers or on feedback from student to student were also excluded.
The fifth inclusion criterion was meant to select only high-quality studies that have
been published in peer-reviewed, influential journals. If the study has been published in a
journal that is not listed in the Social Science Citations Index (SSCI) or Social Science

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