د/ايمان زغلول قاسم

استاذ تكنولوجيا التعليم المشارك بكلية التربية بالزلفي

book B79

6.1.2 DDDM Using LOVS Tests
The DDDM approach encompasses a systematic and cyclic process. In this study, we
used the cycle of the pupil-monitoring system LOVS, which consists of the signaling,
analysis, and acting phases (Figure 6.1). In the first phase, the test is administered, and the
results are checked, whereupon the test results are registered and interpreted by users.
Subsequently, when needed, users seek additional information in the analysis phase to find
possible explanations for the test scores. This phase results in a plan for future action. Next,
the plan is executed; eventually, the effects of the intervention are evaluated. When the three
phases have been completed, the cyclic process starts all over again. In a subsequent cycle,
users can evaluate whether or not the intervention was effective. This study is aimed at

interpreting the test results, which is part of the signaling phase.

Figure 6.1. The evaluative cycle of the pupil-monitoring system LOVS.
6.1.3 Interpretability as Aspect of Validity
Supporting users in interpreting pupils‘ assessment score reports has recently been
addressed as an important aspect of validity (Hattie, 2009; Ryan, 2006; Zenisky &
Hambleton, 2012). The validity of the test scores is negatively affected whenever test results
are not interpreted as the test developer intended (Hattie, 2009; Ryan, 2006). A correct
interpretation of reports is especially relevant when the test results are meant to inform
important or irreversible decisions. Although this is usually not the case for formative uses of
assessment results (Bennett, 2011), a correct interpretation is a precondition for tailoring
instruction or adapting the learning environment in the broader sense to the needs of all the
pupils in order to realise their learning potential.

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