د/ايمان زغلول قاسم

استاذ تكنولوجيا التعليم المشارك بكلية التربية بالزلفي

book B85

6.5. Design and Construction
6.5.1 Initial Design
Van der Kleij and Eggen (2013) distinguished several knowledge aspects and
interpretation skills required to correctly interpret the reports from the Computer Program
LOVS. For example, users should know the meanings of the level indicators (A–E and I–V)
and the score intervals, and interpret ability growth as opposed to ability. Based on the
outcomes of the focus group meetings and questionnaire by Van der Kleij and Eggen,
prototypes for alternative score reports were created using the design principles.
The original reports were used as a starting point for the prototypes, based on the
suggestion that users prefer types of reports similar to those with which they are familiar
(Wainer et al., 1999). Furthermore, according to the experts, many users were satisfied about
the formats of the original reports. For each report, multiple prototypes were generated by the
first author, which served as design drafts. The prototypes were formatively evaluated in
consultation with the experts and the two focus groups. For each report, the original report
was graphically displayed, followed by a summary of the results from the questionnaire and
focus group meetings (Van der Kleij & Eggen, 2013), highlighting the aspects in need of
redesign. Subsequently, multiple prototypes resulting from several possible design solutions
were presented for each report. Figure 6.7 shows a sample prototype for the alternative pupil

report.


6.5.2 Expert Evaluation
Three experts were asked to comment on the prototype aspects relevant to an easier
and more accurate interpretation. The experts listed their comments in a document, which
were discussed and where necessary, clarified in a telephone conversation or by e-mail.
6.5.3 Focus Groups
The researchers visited the two schools and discussed the prototypes in focus group
meetings. The focus groups were set up in a group discussion format (Newby, 2010). In
School 1, four teachers (one of whom was doing an internship), one internal support teacher,
and two principals participated. In School 2, two teachers, one ICT teacher/coordinator, and
one administrative member participated. Qualitative data were gathered about the
participants‘ perceptions of the prototypes with respect to ease of interpretation.
6.5.4 Proposed Design
Based on the expert evaluations and focus group meetings, revisions were made to the
design solutions, and a preliminary design was decided upon. A graphic artist created the
preliminary designs of the reports. Table 6.1 shows the aspects in need of redesign (see Van
der Kleij & Eggen, 2013), the relevant design principles from the literature, the proposed
design solution, and the report to which the change was applied. The principle of capacity
limitations was not used for the purpose of redesign, because there were no indications of
users being overwhelmed by the contents of the reports.

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