د/ايمان زغلول قاسم

استاذ تكنولوجيا التعليم المشارك بكلية التربية بالزلفي

eLearning

Paradigm Shift from eLearning-1 to eLearning-2
Problems & Prospects for Higher Education in Developing Countries like Pakistan
Sadia Basar1, Rahatullah2, Khalid Asad3, Awais Adnan1
1Department of Computer Science, Institute of Management Sciences, KPK, Peshawar, 25000, Pakistan
2Department of Computer Science, IBMS, University of Agriculture, KPK, Peshawar 25000, Pakistan
3Department of Science Education, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad, 44000, Pakistan
[email protected]
Abstract: New technologies offer opportunities for the developing countries to resolve their long-standing problems
of national/international isolation and mass-education. However, it is neither automatic nor devoid of challenges and
problems rather there are both development and use problems for the developers, users and institution. The effective
use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in higher education is a global issue for individual
researchers, institutions, governments and societies as a whole. All three eLearning systems: traditional, blended,
and virtual can be used depending on the availability of technologies and trained workforce. Most of the developing
countries are experimenting with traditional and blended systems while developed world is practicing virtual
systems. This paper portrays the evolution of eLearning from traditional to modern eLearning in the higher
education of developing states like Pakistan.
[Basar S, Rahat, Asad K, A., Adnan A. Paradigm Shift from eLearning-1 to eLearning-2. Life Sci J
2013;10(12s):564-571]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 92
Keywords: ICTs; Traditional, Blended; Virtual eLearning; eTeachers; eStudents; eAdministrators;
1. Introduction
New information technologies are creating a
new global environment, which gets its power from
technology, fuel from information and knowledge
performs in the driving seat. These technologies
provide the electricity of information-age to construct
an information-society or knowledge-economy
(Hameed, 2007). However, technological innovations
and applications are founded on the education system
of a country. For example, any digital initiative is
fueled by a batch of ICT-professionals to develop and
users to apply technologies for organizational
objectives (VanFossen & Berson, 2008). Given that,
it is the education system, which helps nations in
harnessing ICTs for government, business,
agriculture, banking and education by generating a
skilled workforce (Nawaz & Kundi, 2010a).
However, this requires the education system itself to
be computerized first and then educate the masses in
adopting computers into their informal and formal
lives (Nawaz, 2012c; Nawaz, 2013).
Within education, ICTs have started emerging,
for example, in the western European context, it is
now common to integrate ICT into logistical,
organizational and educational functions of HEIs
(Valcke, 2004; Baumeister, 2006) showing that ICTs
are changing the nature of work and the workplace
for all the university constituents (Ezziane, 2007).
ICTs are changing the organization and delivery of
higher education because they are adopting
alternatives to the traditional classroom pedagogy
and developing a variety of eLearning courses
(VanFossen & Berson, 2008). Research also suggests
that ICTs offer new learning opportunities for
students (eLearning), develop teacher’s professional
capabilities (ePedagogy) and strengthen institutional
capacity (eEducation) and most universities today
offer some form of eLearning (El-Hussein & Cronje,
2010).

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