Courses

LECTURE NOTES

For Health Science Students

General Pathology

Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction to Pathology

I. Learning objectives ...........................................................................................  1

II. The core aspects of diseases in pathology .......................................................  2

III. Diagnostic methods used in pathology .............................................................  3

IV. Causes of diseases     ........................................................................................  7

V. Course of diseases .........................................................................................  9

VI. Outcomes & consequences of diseases ...........................................................  10

VII. Clinical & biologic death .................................................................................  10

VIII. Exercises ......................................................................................................  12

Chapter 2: Cellular Reactions to Injury

I. Learning objectives .........................................................................................  14

II. Introduction .........................................................................................................  14

III. Types of cellular adaptation ............................................................................  15

IV. Reversible cellular changes & accumulations .................................................  16

V. Cell death ........................................................................................................  18

VI. Pathologic calcification. ....................................................................................  22

VII. Exercises .........................................................................................................  23

Chapter 3: Inflammation

I. Learning objectives .........................................................................................  24

II. Introduction ......................................................................................................  24

III. Acute inflammation ..........................................................................................  25

IV. Chemical mediators of acute inflammation .....................................................  30

V. Morphology of acute inflammation ..................................................................  31

VI. Effects of inflammation .................................................................................... 33

VII. Course of acute inflammation ..................................................................... 34

VIII. Chronic inflammation .................................................................................... 35

IX. Systemic effects of inflammation ................................................................38

X. Exercises ....................................................................................................40

Chapter 4: Healing

I. Learning Objective .....................................................................................42

II. Definition of healing ...................................................................................42

III. Processes of healing . ..................................................................................42

IV. Molecular control of healing process ..........................................................48

V. Wound healing ............................................................................................49

VI. Factors that influence wound healing .........................................................51

VII. Complications of wound healing ................................................................54

VIII. Fracture healing .........................................................................................56

IX. Exercises ....................................................................................................59

Chapter 5: Hemodynamic Disorders

I. Learning objectives .......................................................................................61

II. Introduction ..................................................................................................61

III. Edema .........................................................................................................61

IV. Hyperemia & congestion ............................................................................68

V. Hemorrhage ................................................................................................70

VI. Hemostasis .................................................................................................71

VII. Thrombosis ................................................................................................71

III. Embolism .........................................................................................................       78

IX. Infarction ............................................................................................................     81

X. Shock ..........................................................................................................85

XI. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) ............................................89

XII. Exercises ..................................................................................................96

Chapter 6: Genetic Diseases

I. Learning objectives .....................................................................................98

II. Introduction ................................................................................................98

III. Mutation:  The basis of genetic diseases .....................................................100

IV. Categories of genetic diseases .....................................................................104

V. Mendelian disorders ....................................................................................104

VI. Chromosomal disorders ...............................................................................120

VII. Multifactorial disorders ................................................................................135

VIII. Single gene disorders with nonclassic inheritance ....................................136

IX. Exercises .....................................................................................................137

Chapter 7: Immunopathology

I. Learning objectives ................................................................................139

II. Hypersensitivity Reactions ......................................................................139

III. Immunologic Tolerance ........................................................................146

IV. Autoimmune Diseases ............................................................................147

V. Immunodeficiency Diseases ....................................................................153

VI. Exercises ..................................................................................................163

Chapter 8: Selected Tropical Diseases

I. Learning objectives .....................................................................................165

II. Typhoid Fever .............................................................................................165

III. Acute Osteomyelitis ...................................................................................166

IV. Tuberculosis ..............................................................................................168

V. Leprosy ......................................................................................................173

VI. Syphillis .....................................................................................................174

VII. Malaria ....................................................................................................177

VIII. Leishmaniasis ..........................................................................................180

IX. Schisistosomiasis .......................................................................................181

X. Fungal infections (Candidiasis, Cryptococcosis, Aspergillosis) ..................183

XI. Viral infections ..........................................................................................186

XII. Exercises ..................................................................................................188

Chapter 9: Neoplasia

I. Learning objectives ..........................................................................190

II. Definition and nomenclature .............................................................190

III. Characteristics of Neoplasms ............................................................191

IV. Cancer Epidemiology ......................................................................196

V. Molecular Basis of Cancer (Carcinogenesis) ...................................198

VI. Clinical Features of Neoplasms ........................................................204

VII. Laboratory Diagnosis of Cancer ......................................................207

VIII. Exercises ........................................................................................211

Chapter 10: Metabolic Diseases

I. Learning objectives ................................................................................213

II. Introduction ...........................................................................................213

III. Diabetes Mellitus ..................................................................................214

IV. Gout . .....................................................................................................225

V. Exercises ...............................................................................................228

Chapter 11: Environmental Diseases

I. Learning objectives ................................................................................231

II. Introduction ...........................................................................................231

III. Air Pollution .........................................................................................231

IV. Industrial Exposures ............................................................................234

V. Tobacco Smoking .................................................................................238

VI.Chemical & Drug Injury ........................................................................239

VII. Physical Injuries .................................................................................244

VIII. Exercises ..........................................................................................250


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