أ.فراس حسن قدوره Feras H Qaddoura

لغة انجليزية (لغويات) - كلية العلوم و الدراسات الانسانية بحوطة

phrases and senten

Phrases and sentences: grammar

 

We have described linguistic expressions as a sequences of sounds which can be represented phonetically

e.g)         the                        lucky                   boys

     ( voiced fricative)      (voiceless stop)    (diphthong)

 

We can take the same linguistic expression and describe it as a sequence of morphemes .

e.g) the                 luck                 y                 boy                 s

( functional)       ( lexical)     ( derivational)  ( lexical)      (inflectional)

 

With these descriptions, we could characterize all the words of a language in terms of their phonetic and morphological make-up.

 

 

Grammar

However, we have not yet accounted for the fact that these words can only be combined in a limited number of patterns. We recognize that the phrase the lucky boys is a well-formed piece of English, but that the following two 'phrases' are not at all well-formed:


*boys the lucky           *lucky boys the

 

(Beside each of these ill-formed structures there is an asterisk (*), which is a conventional way of indicating that a structure is ill-formed, or ungrammati­cal.)

So, we need a way of describing the structure of phrases and sentences which will account for all of the grammatical sequences and rule out all the ungrammatical sequences. Providing such an account involves us in the study of grammar. We should note that this term is frequently used to cover a number of different phenomena.

 

Types of grammar


Each adult speaker of a language clearly has some type of 'mental gram­mar', that is, a form of internal linguistic knowledge which operates in the production and recognition of appropriately structured expressions in that language. This 'grammar' is subconscious and is not the result of any teach­ing .

A second, and quite different, concept of' grammar' involves what might be considered 'linguistic etiquette', that is, the identification of the 'proper' or 'best' structures to be used in a language. A third view of 'grammar' involves the study and analysis of the structures found a language, usually with the aim of establishing a description of the grammar of English, for example, as distinct from the grammar of Russian or French or any other language.

 

Given these three concepts, we can say that, in general, the first may be of most interest to a psychologist, since it deals with what goes on in people's minds, and the second may be of interest to a sociologist, since it has to do with people's social attitudes and values. The third is what occupies many linguists, since the concern is with the nature of language, often indepen­dently of the users of the language. The study of grammar. in  this narrow sense of the stud of the structure of expressions in a language, has a very long tradition.


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