المعدلات الطبيعية

Reference Ranges for most Tests

Ions and trace metals[edit]


Further information: Trace metals


Included here are also related binding proteins, like ferritin and transferrin for iron, and ceruloplasmin for copper.


Test

Lower limit

Upper limit

Unit

Comments

Sodium (Na)

135,[8] 137[9][4]

145,[9][4] 147[8]

mmol/L or mEq/L[8]

310,[10] 320[10]

330,[10] 340[10]

mg/dl

Potassium (K)

3.5,[8][4] 3.6[9]

5.0,[8][9][4] 5.1

mmol/L or mEq/L[8]

See hypokalemia
or hyperkalemia

14[11]

20[11]

mg/dl

Chloride (Cl)

95,[8] 98,[12] 100[4]

105,[8] 106,[12] 110[4]

mmol/L or mEq/L[8]

340[13]

370[13]

mg/dl

Ionized calcium (Ca)

1.03,[14] 1.10[4]

1.23,[14] 1.30[4]

mmol/L

4.1,[15] 4.4[15]

4.9,[15] 5.2[15]

mg/dL

Total calcium (Ca)

2.1,[8][16] 2.2[4]

2.5,[16][4] 2.6,[16] 2.8[8]

mmol/L

8.4,[8] 8.5[17]

10.2,[8] 10.5[17]

mg/dL

Total serum iron (TSI) - male

65,[18] 76[9]

176,[18] 198[9]

µg/dL

11.6,[19][20] 13.6[20]

30,[19] 32,[20] 35[20]

μmol/L

Total serum iron (TSI) - female

26,[9] 50[18]

170[9][18]

µg/dL

4.6,[20] 8.9[19]

30.4[19]

μmol/L

Total serum iron (TSI) - newborns

100[18]

250[18]

µg/dL

18[20]

45[20]

µmol/L

Total serum iron (TSI) - children

50[18]

120[18]

µg/dL

9[20]

21[20]

µmol/L

Total iron-binding capacity (TIBC)

240,[18] 262[9]

450,[18] 474[9]

μg/dL

43,[20] 47[20]

81,[20] 85[20]

µmol/L

Transferrin

190,[21] 194,[4] 204[9]

326,[4] 330,[21] 360[9]

mg/dL

25[22]

45[22]

μmol/L

Transferrin saturation

20[18]

50[18]

 %

Ferritin - Male

12[23]

300[23]

ng/mL

27[24]

670[24]

pmol/L

Ferritin - Female

12[23]

150[23]

ng/mL

27[24]

330[24]

pmol/L

Ammonia

10,[25] 20[26]

35,[25] 65[26]

μmol/L

17,[27] 34[27]

60,[27] 110[27]

μg/dL

Copper

70[17]

150[17]

µg/dL

11[28]

24[28]

μmol/L

Ceruloplasmin

15[17]

60[17]

mg/dL

1[29]

4[29]

μmol/L

Phosphate (HPO42−)

0.8

1.5[30]

mmol/L

Inorganic phosphorus (serum)

1.0[8]

1.5[8]

mmol/L

3.0[8]

4.5[8]

mg/dL

Copper (Cu)

11[31]

24

μmol/L

Zinc (Zn)

60,[32] 72[33]

110,[33] 130[32]

μg/dL

9.2,[34] 11[4]

17,[4] 20[34]

µmol/L

Magnesium

1.5,[17] 1.7[35]

2.0,[17] 2.3[35]

mEq/L or mg/dL

0.6,[36] 0.7[4]

0.82,[36] 0.95[4]

mmol/L


Acid-base and blood gases[edit]


Further information: Acid-base homeostasis


Further information: Arterial blood gas


If arterial/venous is not specified for an acid-base or blood gas value, then it generally refers to arterial, and not venous which otherwise is standard for other blood tests.


Acid-base and blood gases are among the few blood constituents that exhibit substantial difference between arterial and venous values.[5] Still, pH, bicarbonate and base excess show a high level of inter-method reliability between arterial and venous tests, so arterial and venous values are roughly equivalent for these.[37]


Test

Arterial/Venous

Lower limit

Upper limit

Unit

Comments

pH

Arterial

7.34,[9] 7.35[8]

7.44,[9] 7.45[8]

Venous

7.31[38]

7.41[38]

[H+]

Arterial

36[8]

44[8]

nmol/L

3.6[39]

4.4[39]

ng/dL

Base excess

Arterial & venous[38]

-3[38]

+3[38]

mEq/L

oxygen partial pressure (pO2)

Arterial pO2

10,[8] 11[40]

13,[40] 14[8]

kPa

75,[8][9] 83[17]

100,[9] 105[8]

mmHg or torr

Venous

4.0[40]

5.3[40]

kPa

30[38]

40[38]

mmHg or torr

Oxygen saturation

Arterial

94,[38] 95,[12] 96[17]

100[12][17]

 %

Venous

Approximately 75[12]

Carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2)

Arterial PaCO2

4.4,[8] 4.7[40]

5.9,[8] 6.0[40]

kPa

33,[8] 35[9]

44,[8] 45[9]

mmHg or torr

Venous

5.5[40]

6.8[40]

kPa

41[38]

51[38]

mmHg or torr

Absolute content of carbon dioxide (CO2)

Arterial

23[38]

30[38]

mmol/L

100[41]

132[41]

mg/dL

Bicarbonate (HCO3-)

Arterial & venous

18[17]

23[17]

mmol/L

110[42]

140[42]

mg/dL

Standard bicarbonate (SBCe)

Arterial & venous

21, 22[8]

27, 28[8]

mmol/L or mEq/L[8]

134[42]

170[42]

mg/dL


Liver function[edit]


Further information: Liver function tests


Test

Patient type

Lower limit

Upper limit

Unit

Comments

Total Protein

60,[8] 63[9]

78,[8] 82,[9] 84[17]

g/L

see hypoproteinemia

Albumin

35[8][43]

48,[9] 55[8]

g/L

see hypoalbuminemia

3.5[9]

4.8,[9] 5.5[8]

U/L

540[44]

740[44]

μmol/L

Globulins

23[8]

35[8]

g/L

Total Bilirubin

1.7,[45] 2,[8] 3.4,[45] 5[4]

17,[8][45] 22,[45] 25[4]

μmol/L

0.1,[8] 0.2,[9] 0.29[46]

1.0,[8][17] 1.3,[9] 1.4[46]

mg/dL

Direct/Conjugated Bilirubin

0.0[8] or N/A[4]

5,[8] 7[45][4]

μmol/L

0[8][9]

0.3,[8][9] 0.4[17]

mg/dL

Alanine transaminase (ALT/ALAT[4])

5,[47] 7,[9] 8[8]

20,[8] 21,[12] 56[9]

U/L

Also called serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT)

Female

0.15[4]

0.75[4]

µkat/L

Male

0.15[4]

1.1[4]

Aspartate transaminase (AST/ASAT[4])

Female

6[48]

34[48]

IU/L

Also called
serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT)

0.25[4]

0.60[4]

µkat/L

Male

8[48]

40[48]

IU/L

0.25[4]

0.75[4]

µkat/L

Alkaline phosphatase (ALP)

Female

42[47]

98[47]

U/L

Male

53[47]

128[47]

(Enzyme activity)

0.6[4]

1.8[4]

µkat/L

Gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT)

5,[47] 8[9]

40,[47] 78[9]

U/L

Women

0.63[49]

µkat/L

Men

0.92[49]

µkat/L


Cardiac tests[edit]


Test

Patient type

Lower limit

Upper limit

Unit

Comments

Creatine kinase (CK)

male

24,[50] 38,[9] 60[47]

174,[17] 320[47]

U/L
or ng/mL

0.42[51]

1.5[51]

µkat/L

female

24,[50] 38,[9] 96[17]

140,[17] 200[47]

U/L
or ng/mL

0.17[51]

1.17[51]

µkat/L

CK-MB

0

3,[9] 3.8,[4] 5[47]

ng/mL or μg/L[4]

Myoglobin

Female

1[52]

66[52]

ng/mL or µg/L

Male

17[52]

106[52]



Cutoffs and ranges for troponin types, 12 hrs after onset of pain

Test

Lower limit

Upper limit

Unit

Comments

Troponin-I

0.2[53]

ng/mL or μg/L

Upper limit of normal

0.2[53]

1.0[53]

ng/mL or μg/L

Acute Coronary Syndrome

0.4[54]

2.0[54]

ng/mL or μg/L

Moderately increased[54]

1.0,[53] 1.5[55]

n/a[53][55]

ng/mL or μg/L

Myocardial Infarction likely

Troponin-T

0.02[53]

ng/mL or μg/L

Upper limit of normal

0.02[53]

0.10[53]

ng/mL or μg/L

Acute Coronary Syndrome

0.10[53]

n/a[53]

ng/mL or μg/L

Myocardial Infarction likely



Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)

-more detailed ranges in BNP article

Interpretation

Range / Cutoff

Congestive heart failure unlikely

< 100 pg/mL[56][57]

"Gray zone"

100-500 pg/mL[56][57]

Congestive heart failure likely

>500 pg/mL[56][57]



NT-proBNP

-more detailed ranges in NT-proBNP article

Interpretation

Age

Cutoff

Congestive heart failure likely

< 75years

> 125 pg/mL[51]

>75 years

>450pg/mL[51]


Lipids[edit]


Further information: Blood lipids


Test

Patient type

Lower limit

Upper limit

Unit

Therapeutic target

Triglycerides

10 – 39 years

54[17]

110[17]

mg/dL

< 100 mg/dL[58]
or 1.1[58] mmol/L

0.61[59]

1.2[59]

mmol/L

40 – 59 years

70[17]

150[17]

mg/dL

0.77[59]

1.7[59]

mmol/L

> 60 years

80[17]

150[17]

mg/dL

0.9[59]

1.7[59]

mmol/L

Total cholesterol

3.0,[60] 3.6[8][60]

5.0,[4][61] 6.5[8]

mmol/L

< 3.9[58]

120,[9] 140[8]

200,[9] 250[8]

mg/dL

< 150[58]

HDL cholesterol

female

1.0,[62] 1.2,[4] 1.3[60]

2.2[62]

mmol/L

> 1.0[62] or 1.6[60] mmol/L
> 40[63] or 60[64] mg/dL

40,[63] 50[65]

86[63]

mg/dL

HDL cholesterol

male

0.9[62][4]

2.0[62]

mmol/L

35[63]

80[63]

mg/dL

LDL cholesterol
(Not valid when
triglycerides >5.0 mmol/L)

2.0,[62] 2.4[61]

3.0,[61][4] 3.4[62]

mmol/L

< 2.5[62]

80,[63] 94[63]

120,[63] 130[63]

mg/dL

< 100[63]

LDL/HDL quotient

n/a

5[4]

(unitless)


Tumour markers[edit]


Further information: Tumour markers


Test

Cutoff

Unit

Comments

Alpha fetoprotein (AFP)

44[9]

ng/mL or µg/L

Hepatocellular carcinoma or testicular cancer

Beta Human chorionic gonadotrophin (bHCG)

5[9]

IU/l or mU/ml

in male and non-pregnant female

CA19-9

40[9]

U/ml

Pancreatic cancer

CA-125

30,[66] 35[67]

kU/L or U/mL

Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)
non-smokers at 50 years

3.4,[4] 3.6[68]

μg/l

Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)
non-smokers at 70 years

4.1[68]

μg/l

Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) - smokers

5[69]

μg/l

Prostate specific antigen (PSA)

2.5,[4] 4[9]

μg/L[9][4] or ng/mL[17]

below age 45 <2.5 μg/L

PAP

3[17]

units/dL (Bodansky units)

Calcitonin

-more detailed cutoffs in Calcitonin article

5,[70] 15[70]

ng/L or pg/mL

Cutoff against medullary thyroid cancer[70]


Endocrinology[edit]


Thyroid hormones[edit]


Further information: Thyroid function tests


Test

Patient type

Lower limit

Upper limit

Unit

Thyroid stimulating hormone
(TSH or thyrotropin)

Adults -
standard range

0.3,[4] 0.4,[9] 0.5,[17] 0.6[71]

4.0,[4] 4.5,[9] 6.0[17]

mIU/L or μIU/mL

Adults -
optimal range

0.3,[72] 0.5[73]

2.0,[73] 3.0[72]

mIU/L or μIU/mL

Infants

1.3[74]

19[74]

mIU/L or μIU/mL

Free thyroxine (FT4)

-more detailed ranges in
Thyroid function tests article

Normal adult

0.7,[75] 0.8[9]

1.4,[75] 1.5,[9] 1.8[76]

ng/dL

9,[77][4] 10,[78] 12[79]

18,[4][77] 23[79]

pmol/L

Child/Adolescent
31 d - 18 y

0.8[75]

2.0[75]

ng/dL

10[77]

26[77]

pmol/L

Pregnant

0.5[75]

1.0[75]

ng/dL

6.5[77]

13[77]

pmol/L

Total thyroxine

4,[78] 5.5[9]

11,[78] 12.3[9]

μg/dL

60[78][79]

140,[78] 160[79]

nmol/L

Free triiodothyronine (FT3)

Normal adult

0.2[78]

0.5[78]

ng/dL

3.1[80]

7.7[80]

pmol/L

Children 2-16 y

0.1[81]

0.6[81]

ng/dL

1.5[80]

9.2[80]

pmol/L

Total triiodothyronine

60,[9] 75[78]

175,[78] 181[9]

ng/dL

0.9,[4] 1.1[78]

2.5,[4] 2.7[78]

nmol/L

Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG)

12[9]

30[9]

mg/L

Thyroglobulin (Tg)

1.5[78]

30[78]

pmol/L

1[78]

20[78]

μg/L


Sex hormones[edit]


Further information: Sex steroid


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/02/Hormones_estradiol%2C_progesterone%2C_LH_and_FSH_during_menstrual_cycle.png/150px-Hormones_estradiol%2C_progesterone%2C_LH_and_FSH_during_menstrual_cycle.png


http://bits.wikimedia.org/static-1.23wmf7/skins/common/images/magnify-clip.png


Levels of estradiol (the main estrogen), progesterone,luteinizing hormone andfollicle-stimulating hormoneduring the menstrual cycle.[82]


The diagrams at right take inter-cycle and inter-woman variability into account in displaying reference ranges for estradiol, progesterone, FSH and LH.[82]


Test

Patient type

Lower limit

Upper limit

Unit

Dihydrotestosterone

adult male

30[83]

85[83]

ng/dL

Testosterone

Male, overall

8,[84] 10[85]

27,[84] 35[85]

nmol/L

230,[86] 300[87]

780[86] - 1000[87]

ng/dL

Male < 50 years

10[4]

45[4]

nmol/L

290[86]

1300[86]

ng/dL

Male > 50 years

6.2[4]

26[4]

nmol/L

180[86]

740[86]

ng/dL

Female

0.7[85]

2.8[85] - 3.0[4]

nmol/L

20[87]

80[87] - 85[86]

ng/dL

17-Hydroxyprogesterone

male

0.06[17]

3.0[17]

mg/L

0.18[88]

9.1[88]

µmol/l

Female (Follicular phase)

0.2[17]

1.0[17]

mg/L

0.6[88]

3.0[88]

µmol/l

Follicle-stimulating
hormone
(FSH)

-more detailed menstrual cycle
ranges in separate diagram

Prepubertal

<1[89]

3[89]

IU/L

Adult male

1[89]

8[89]

Adult female (follicular
and luteal phase)

1[89]

11[89]

Adult female (Ovulation)

6[89]
95% PI (standard)

26[89]
95% PI)

5[90]
90% PI (used in diagram)

15[90]
(90% PI)

Post-menopausal female

30[89]

118[89]

Luteinizing hormone (LH)

-more detailed menstrual cycle
ranges in separate diagram

Female, peak

20[90]
90% PI (used in diagram)

75[90]
(90% PI)

IU/L

Female, post-menopausal

15[91]

60[91]

Male aged 18+

2[92]

9[92]

Estradiol
(an estrogen)

-more detailed ranges in
estradiol article

Adult male

50[93]

200[93]

pmol/L

14[94]

55[94]

pg/mL

Adult female (day 5 of follicular phase,
and luteal phase)

70[93]

500,[93] 600[93]

pmol/L

19[94]

140,[94] 160[94]

pg/mL

Adult female - free (not protein bound)

0.5[95]

9[95]

pg/mL

1.7[95]

33[95]

pmol/L

Post-menopausal female

N/A[93]

< 130[93]

pmol/L

N/A[94]

< 35[94]

pg/mL

Progesterone

-more detailed ranges
in Progesterone article

Female in mid-luteal phase (day 21-23)

17,[90] 35[96]

92[96]

nmol/L

6,[90] 11[97]

29[97]

ng/mL

Androstenedione

Adult male and female

60[91]

270[91]

ng/dL

Post-menopausal female

< 180[91]

Prepubertal

< 60[91]

Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate

-more detailed ranges
in DHEA-S article

Adult male and female

30[98]

400[98]

µg/dL

SHBG

-more detailed ranges
in SHBG article

Adult female

40[99]

120[99]

nmol/L

Adult male

20[99]

60[99]

Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH)

-more detailed ranges in
AMH article

13–45 years

0.7[100]

20[100]

ng/mL

5[101]

140[101]

pmol/l


Other hormones[edit]


Further information: Hormones


Test

Patient type

Lower limit

Upper limit

Unit

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

4.4[102]

18,[103] 22[102]

pmol/L

20[9]

80,[104] 100[9]

pg/mL

Cortisol

09:00 am

140[105]

700[105]

nmol/L

5[106]

25[106]

μg/dL

Midnight

80[105]

350[105]

nmol/L

2.9[106]

13[106]

μg/dL

Growth hormone (fasting)

0

5[8]

ng/mL

Growth hormone (arginine stimulation)

7[8]

n/a

ng/mL

IGF-1

-more detailed ranges in
IGF-1 article

Female, 20 yrs

110[107]

420[107]

ng/mL

Female, 75 yrs

55[107]

220[107]

Male, 20 yrs

160[107]

390[107]

Male, 75 yrs

48[107]

200[107]

Prolactin

-more detailed ranges in
Prolactin article

Female

71,[108] 105[108]

348,[108] 548[108]

mIU/L

3.4,[108] 3.9[108]

16.4,[108] 20.3[108]

µg/L

Male

58,[108] 89[108]

277,[108] 365[108]

mIU/L

2.7,[108] 3.3[108]

13.0,[108] 13.5[108]

µg/L

Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

10,[109] 17[110]

65,[109] 70[110]

pg/mL

1.1,[4] 1.8[111]

6.9,[4] 7.5[111]

pmol/L

25-hydroxycholecalciferol (a vitamin D)
-Standard reference range

8,[17][112] 9[112]

40,[112] 80[17]

ng/mL

20,[113] 23[114]

95,[114] 150[113]

nmol/L

25-hydroxycholecalciferol
-Therapeutic target range

30,[115] 40[116]

65,[116] 100[115]

ng/mL

85,[58] 100[116]

120,[58] 160[116]

nmol/L

Plasma renin activity

0.29,[117] 1.9[118]

3.7[117][118]

ng/(mL*hour)

3.3,[119] 21[120]

41[119][120]

mcU/mL

Aldosterone

-more detailed ranges in
Aldosterone article

Adult

19,[119] 34.0[119]

ng/dL

530,[121] 940[121]

pmol/L

Aldosterone-to-renin ratio

-more detailed ranges in
Aldosterone/renin ratio article

Adult

13.1,[122] 35.0[122]

ng/dl per ng/(mL·h)

360,[122] 970[122]

pmol/liter per µg/(L·h)


Vitamins[edit]


Also including the vitamin B12)-related amino acid homocysteine.


Test

Patient type

Standard range

Unit

Optimal range

Lower limit

Upper limit

Lower limit

Upper limit

Vitamin A

30[17]

65[17]

µg/dL

Vitamin B9
(Folic acid/Folate) - Serum

Age > 1year

3.0[123]

16[123]

ng/mL or μg/L

5[124]

6.8[125]

36[125]

nmol/l

11[125]

Vitamin B9
(Folic acid/Folate) - Red blood cells

200[123]

600[123]

ng/mL or μg/L

450[125]

1400[125]

nmol/L

Pregnant

ng/mL or μg/L

400[123]

nmol/L

900[123]

Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

130,[126] 160[127]

700,[126] 950[127]

ng/L

100,[128] 120[4]

520,[128] 700[4]

pmol/L

Homocysteine

-more detailed ranges in
Homocysteine article

3.3,[129] 5.9[129]

7.2,[129] 15.3[129]

μmol/L

6.3[58]

45,[130] 80[130]

100,[130] 210[130]

μg/dL

85[58]

Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)

0.4[17]

1.5[17]

mg/dL

0.9[58]

23[131]

85[131]

μmol/L

50[58]

25-hydroxycholecalciferol (a vitamin D)

8,[17][112] 9[112]

40,[112] 80[17]

ng/mL

30,[115] 40[116]

65,[116] 100[115]

20,[113] 23[114]

95,[114] 150[113]

nmol/L

85,[58] 100[116]

120,[58] 160[116]

Vitamin E

μmol/L

28[58]

mg/dL

1.2[58]


Toxins[edit]


Test

Limit type

Limit

Unit

Lead

Optimal health range

< 20[12] or 40[17]

µg/dL

Blood ethanol content

Limit for drunk driving

0,[132] 0.2,[132] 0.8[132]

or g/L

17.4[133]

mmol/L


Hematology[edit]


Red blood cells[edit]


These values (except Hemoglobin in plasma) are for total blood and not only blood plasma.


Test

Patient

Lower limit

Upper limit

Unit

Comments

Hemoglobin (Hb)