Dr. Mona Tawakkul Elsayed

Associate Prof. of Mental Health and Special Education

Emotional Disturba


Emotional Disturbance


A.    Definition. Emotional Disturbance means a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a student's educational performance: (Emotional disturbance includes schizophrenia. The term does not apply to children who are socially maladjusted, unless it is determined that they have an emotional disturbance.)


1.     an inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors;


2.     an inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers;


3.     inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances;


4.     a general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression; and/or


5.     a tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems.


B.    Criteria for Eligibility. Evidence of criteria listed in Paragraphs 1, 2, 3 and 4 shall all be met. The student exhibits behavioral or emotional responses so different from age appropriate, cultural, or ethnic norms that they adversely affect the student's educational performance which includes academic progress, social relationships, work adjustment personal adjustment, and/or behavior in the school setting. Such a disability is more than a temporary, expected response to stressful events in the environment; is consistently exhibited in two different settings, one of which must be the school setting; and persists despite individualized intervention within general education and other settings. Emotional disturbance can co-exist with other disabilities.


1.     Functional Disability. There is evidence of severe, disruptive and/or incapacitating functional limitations of behavior characterized by at least one of the following:


a.     the inability to exhibit appropriate behavior routinely under normal circumstances;


b.     a tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems;


c.     the inability to learn or work that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors;


d.     the inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and adults; or


e.     a general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression.


2.     Duration. There is evidence of at least one of the following:


a.     the impairment or pattern of inappropriate behavior(s) has persisted for at least one year;


b.     there is substantial risk that the impairment or pattern of inappropriate behavior(s) will persist for an extended period; or


c.     there is a pattern of inappropriate behaviors that are severe and of short duration.


3.     Educational Performance. There is evidence that all of the following are true.


a.     Educational performance must be significantly and adversely affected as a result of behaviors that meet the definition of emotional disturbance.


b.     Behavioral patterns, consistent with the definition, exist after behavior intervention and/or counseling and educational assistance implemented through the RTI process which includes documented research-based interventions targeting specific behaviors of concern.


               i.       Documented evidence must show that scientifically research-based interventions implemented with fidelity did not significantly modify the problem behavior. The intervention(s) shall include operationally defined target behaviors, systematic measurement of the behaviors of concern, establishment of baseline, monitoring of the student’s response to the intervention following intervention implementation, or prior to with repeated measures during the intervention. Documentation shall include graphing/charting of the results of the intervention(s), information regarding the length of time for which each intervention was conducted, and any changes or adjustments made to an intervention. Significantly modify means that a change in behavior is demonstrated to such a degree that, with continuation of the intervention program by the general education teacher and/or other support personnel, the student could continue in the general education program.


4.     The behaviors of concern are exhibited across at least two different settings (home, school, and community), one of which must be school.


C.    Procedures for Evaluation. Conduct all procedures described under §513, Evaluation Components.


D.    Additional procedures for evaluation:


1.     a psycho-social assessment conducted by a social worker, school psychologist, or other qualified pupil appraisal staff member, which includes an interview with the student's parent(s), or care giver. If the assessment determines the student to be out-of-home, out-of-school or "at risk" of out-of-school, or out-of-home placement and in need of multi-agency services, the student must be considered for referral to any existing interagency case review process;


2.     a review of the functional behavior assessment which includes a description of the intensity, duration and frequency of occurrence of target behaviors and a description of antecedent(s) and consequence(s) maintaining the behavior(s). The assessment should be conducted across settings with multiple informants and should include a determination of the function(s) of the behavior(s) of concern;


3.     a review of the appropriateness and effectiveness of the documented intervention(s). If interventions were not conducted prior to the evaluation, intervention(s) must be implemented during the evaluation process. Suspension/expulsion cannot be used as an intervention;


4.     a comprehensive psychological assessment conducted by a certified school psychologist or a licensed psychologist, or psychiatric assessment conducted by a psychiatrist. The assessment shall include, at a minimum, an appraisal of the student's cognitive, emotional, and social functioning including self-concept;


5.     the evaluation report shall include recommendations for the provision of counseling, school psychological, or school social work services as a related service. If these services are determined not to be necessary, written documentation of the justification for not providing the services shall be included in the evaluation report;


6.     other assessment procedures determined to be necessary by the multidisciplinary team.


AUTHORITY NOTE: Promulgated in accordance with R.S. 17:1941 et seq.


HISTORICAL NOTE: Promulgated by the Board of Elementary and Secondary Education, LR 35:907 (May 2009), effective July 1, 2009.


§709.      Hearing Impairment


A.    Definition. Hearing Impairment means an impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a student's educational performance. It includes Deafness, which is a hearing impairment that is so severe that the student is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification.


1.     Deafness is a hearing loss with an unaided pure tone average of 70dB (ANSI) or more in the better ear at 500, 1000, and 2000 Hz. The hearing loss is so severe that the student is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification.


2.     Hard of Hearing includes the following.


a.     Permanent or Fluctuating Hearing Loss―a hearing loss with an unaided pure tone average in the better ear at 500, 1000, and 2000 Hz between 25 and 70 dB (ANSI). The hearing loss is severe enough to be considered educationally significant, as it will to varying degrees impact the normal development of speech and language skills and/or interfere with learning new information through the auditory modality.


b.     Unilateral Hearing Loss―a permanent hearing loss with an unaided pure tone average in the poorer ear at 500, 1000, and 2000 Hz of 40 dB (ANSI) or greater. The hearing in the better ear is within the normal range (pure tone average of 20 dB or better at 500, 1000, and 2000 Hz). The hearing loss in the poorer ear is of sufficient severity to be considered educationally significant because it may affect the person's ability to process linguistic information and/or localize sound, particularly in the presence of background noise.


c.     High Frequency Hearing Loss―a bilateral hearing loss with an unaided pure tone average of 40 dB or greater at any two of the following frequencies (2000, 3000, 4000 or 6000 Hz). The hearing loss is educationally significant because it is of sufficient severity to impact the person's ability to process linguistic information, particularly in the presence of background noise.


3.     If a student has only two disabilities and those disabilities are deafness and blindness, the student must be classified as having deaf-blindness. The LEA shall notify state Deaf-Blind Census of all students who have both hearing and visual impairments.


B.    Criteria for Eligibility. Evidence of criteria listed in Paragraphs 1 and 2 must be met:


1.     there must be audiological evidence that the student is either deaf or hard of hearing, consistent with the definition; and


2.     there must be evidence that the hearing loss adversely affects the student's educational performance.


C.    Procedures for Evaluation. Conduct all procedures described under §513, Evaluation Components.


D.    Additional procedures for evaluation:


1.     the interview with the student must be conducted in the student's primary mode of communication;


2.     an assessment of the student's hearing sensitivity, acuity, with and without amplification shall be conducted by a physician with specialized training or experience in the diagnosis and treatment of hearing impairments and/or a licensed audiologist;


3.     the student, family and teacher interviews should include the following discussions:


a.     the student's language and communication needs;


b.     opportunities for direct communication with peers and professional personnel in the student's language and primary mode of communication;


c.     academic functioning levels; and


d.     the full range of needs, which include opportunities for direct instruction in the student's language and primary mode of communication;


4.     the Statewide Assessment Center for Students with Hearing Impairments may be used as a resource to conduct the evaluation;


5.     a speech and language assessment of receptive and expressive language to include the student's language level and communication skills conducted by a speech/language pathologist. The examiner should be fluent in the student's primary mode of communication or should utilize the services of a certified interpreter/transliterator, when necessary;


6.     for students with deafness, a description of how the impairment is impacting the student's ability to process linguistic information shall be provided.


E.    Reevaluation


1.     If at the time of the triennial reevaluation, the student has not been considered for Usher Syndrome and it is judged that the student is "at risk" for the syndrome, the triennial reevaluation cannot be waived.


2.     Students who are considered "at risk" for Usher Syndrome shall receive a comprehensive vision examination by an ophthalmologist or optometrist.


a.     "At-risk" indicators are the following:


               i.       unable to walk by 13 months;


              ii.       difficulty seeing in low lighting situation;


             iii.       glare sensitivity;


             iv.       immediate family member(s) diagnosed with Usher Syndrome;


              v.       difficulty seeing people/objects in visual periphery;


             vi.       difficulty focusing on objects/written word; or


            vii.       balance problems.


b.     Students identified through screening, as "at risk" shall be referred to an ophthalmologist for assessment to document the presence of any disease process.


AUTHORITY NOTE: Promulgated in accordance with R.S. 17:1941 et seq.


HISTORICAL NOTE: Promulgated by the Board of Elementary and Secondary Education, LR 35:908 (May 2009), effective July 1, 2009.


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تصنيف بلوم لقياس مخرجات التعلم

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التعلم القائم على النواتج (المخرجات)

التعلم القائم على المخرجات يركز على تعلم الطالب خلال استخدام عبارات نواتج التعلم التي تصف ما هو متوقع من المتعلم معرفته، وفهمه، والقدرة على أدائه بعد الانتهاء من موقف تعليمي، وتقديم أنشطة التعلم التي تساعد الطالب على اكتساب تلك النواتج، وتقويم مدى اكتساب الطالب لتلك النواتج من خلال استخدام محكات تقويم محدودة.

ما هي مخرجات التعلم؟

عبارات تبرز ما سيعرفه الطالب أو يكون قادراً على أدائه نتيجة للتعليم أو التعلم أو كليهما معاً في نهاية فترة زمنية محددة (مقرر – برنامج – مهمة معينة – ورشة عمل – تدريب ميداني) وأحياناً تسمى أهداف التعلم)

خصائص مخرجات التعلم

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