Dr. Mona Tawakkul Elsayed

Associate Prof. of Mental Health and Special Education

Assessing and Moni

Assessing and Monitoring Student Progress

In E-Learning Personnel Preparation Environment

Edward L. Meyen, Ronald J. Aust, Robert Isaacson

The University of Kansas

e-Learning Design Lab

3061 Dole Human Development Center

Lawrence, Kansas, 66045


[email protected]



With the advent of the Internet a new form of pedagogy has emerged that has

unprecedented potential for expanding access to and improving the effectiveness of

personnel preparation programs in meeting national needs in special education. This

new form of instruction has spawned many questions related to effectiveness,

responsiveness of adult learners, appropriateness for teacher education, and viability for

the future. A brief look at what is occurring will help build a perspective on e-learning

in personnel preparation.

In the United States, 97 percent of full-time faculty and staff at two- and fouryear

institutions of higher education have access to the Internet, and 40 percent use

Web sites to post course-related information (U.S. Department of Education, 2001). In

recent years, virtual universities, with no prior education histories, have come into

being, attracting large enrollments. This has contributed to universities responding by

placing courses and degrees online. For example, the Online Academy, a project funded

by the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP), produced 22 online modules for

teacher education that were adopted by over 160 universities (Meyen, 2000). Nearly

710,000 students in 1998 were enrolled in at least one online course, and that figure is

predicted to reach 2.2 million by 2002. (Financial Times—Business Education, April

3, 2000). In the general-use market some industry estimates predict that the number of

users worldwide will pass the one billion mark by 2005 (United States Internet Council,

2000). Similarly, the corporate e-learning market is expected to surpass the billion

mark by 2004, up from billion in 1999 (IDC, 2001).

Questions related to the capacity to deliver e-learning and the acceptance by

adult learners in the professions of this new mode of instruction have been sufficiently

validated to warrant investing in research and development of e-learning in teacher

education. The growing need for special education teachers and for professional

development on the part of practicing professionals in special education is well


documented (Higher Education Consortium for Special Education, 2001). What is not

clear is the level of commitment by agencies and teacher education programs to

research and development as a way to build on what is known about teaching and

learning in maximizing the power of e-learning for adults. This is essential if we are to

leverage this new capacity in meeting national personnel needs. While funding agencies

such as OSEP have demonstrated leadership by supporting e-learning projects, they

have tended to support initiatives that result in content-based programs. However

important these programs are, support is needed of work targeted at improving

instructional designs, expanded features, e-learning teaching/development tools,

maximizing emerging technologies to personnel preparation applications, instructional

management options for e-learning environments, and research on matching the

attributes of adult learners with the instructional and assessment features of e-learning.

We are not talking here about replacing traditional approaches to personnel

preparation with e-learning strategies. Rather, we are proposing that major attention be

paid to exploring how to make this new form of pedagogy, with all its potential and

shortcomings, maximally effective in the shortest period of time while also generalizing

the best features to face-to-face instruction. Since it may become the dominant

methodology for adult learners in the future, it should be made as powerful as possible.

This requires attending to what we know about the principles of teaching and learning

and determining how these principles generalize to e-learning as well as focusing on

techniques that are unique to e-learning. In these efforts, it is important that the

knowledge base and experimentation with applying this knowledge base in e-learning

environments drive new designs and applications in personnel preparation rather than

allowing technology alone to do so, which currently seems to be the case. Unless

research and validated practices drive the use of technology in personnel preparation,

we risk the development of models that are less than optimal or, even worse, that fail to

achieve their potential. E-learning is a very young pedagogy and warrants the benefits

of reasoned inquiry and controlled experimentation that comes with research.


The present article on assessing performance and monitoring student progress

via electronic portfolios is based on the authors' personal experience. Meyen has taught

asynchronous online courses employing streaming media full time since 1996. Aust has

been using Web -based supports and varied versions of enhancing access to and

management of student work in his courses for an equal period of time. In addition,

both served in leadership roles when creating the instructional design and the

development tool for the Online Academy (Meyen, Skrtic, Deshler, Lenz, Sailor &

Chaffin, 2000). They are now part of the e-Learning Design Lab involving researchers

from the departments of engineering and education. Examples will be used to illustrate

the practices described. The intent is to focus on experiences in online instruction and

web-based supports in providing examples of how the pedagogy of e-learning

accommodates good teaching practices and the contributions of employing sound

assessment practices and the use of electronic portfolios in building a more powerful

pedagogy of e-learning.

A Literature Perspective on

E-Learning Assessments and Student Performance

The following discussion of assessment of student performance in e-learning

environments for personnel preparation is based on our conviction that assessment is

integral to instruction, and that it must be continuous and maximize feedback.

Principles of Assessment

While the underlying principles of assessing the performance of adult learners do

not change when applied to e-learning, the e-learning environment does differ

significantly from traditional modes of instruction. The e-learning environment creates

opportunities for and possibly demands more intensive assessment. That is, while

technology adds a level of efficiency to assessment in e-learning environments, it must

also compensate for the lack of easy access to personal observation. Pennsylvania State

University (1998) has developed a set of principles to guide assessment of e-learning in

distance education and has published a guide for translating them into practice. These


principles reinforce the importance of integrating assessment with instruction. They are

as follows:

1. Assessment instruments and activities should be congruent with the learning

goals and skills required of the learner throughout a distance education

program or course.

2. Assessment and management strategies should be integral parts of the

learning experience, enabling learners to assess their progress, to identify

areas of review, and to reestablish immediate learning or lesson goals.

3. Assessment and measurement strategies should accommodate the special

needs, characteristics, and situations of the distance learner.

In discussing assessment of student performance online, Kibby (1999) sees

assessment as central to the teaching learning process and as part of the management

system. Assessments should measure student performance and result in feedback to

students about their performance. Kibby goes on to detail nine decisions to be made

when developing assessments for Web-based instruction.

1. Which perspectives of learning are going to be assessed, cognitive (acquisition

of knowledge), behavioral (skill development), or humanistic (values and


2. Who is going to make the assessment, the student, their peers, or the instructor?

3. Will assessment strategies be learning experiences in themselves?

4. Is the assessment to be formative (providing feedback during learning) or

summative (measuring learning at the end of the process)?

5. Are judgments of performance to made against peer standards (norm

referenced) or established criteria (criterion referenced)?

6. How can assessment provide a balance between structure and freedom?

7. Will the assessment be authentic, related to real life situations?

8. Will the assessment be integrated, testing a range of knowledge and skills?


9. How can reliability and validity of assessment be assured?

Related to networked learning, McConnell (1999) observes that assessment may be

one of the last remaining bastions of academic life in that in a formal course it is

usually the one element where the learner has no, or very little, say or control. The

instructor usually carries out the assessment unilaterally with the final decision about

learner performance being their personal perspective. While this may be driven by the

professional responsibility of the instructor for determining proficiency in skills or

knowledge of the subject matter, assessment can be made a more integral part of the elearning

teaching/learning process. In doing so, it becomes feasible to design

assessments that permit the learners to allow their performance to influence subsequent

assessments. This is particularly true in e-learning where technology allows for

frequent and varied assessments. The key in assessing the performance of students in elearning

is to remain focused on the learner’s attainment of the instructor’s stated goals

and objectives. In doing so it is important to resist opportunities to impose assessments

merely because technology facilitates the process.

E-Learning Design Implications

Because e-learning largely requires that courses are designed in advance of

teaching, the instructor as the developer has an opportunity to not only plan situations

to embed assessments in the instruction, but also to review the instructional content and

planned experiences prior to implementation of the e-learning program. This can

ensure the validity of the assessments. The development requirement of e-learning

requires that the instructor (assuming he or she is also the course content developer)

employs the full range of instructional skills in the teaching e-learning process. They

cannot rely on interpersonal skills during teaching to compensate for weaknesses of

organization in the course or the lack substance or timeliness of the content, as is

possible in traditional course. Nor can well-structured learning experiences compensate

for a lack of communication skills in the e-learning teaching process. All elements of

the instruction must be in place in advance. For this reason there is no excuse for


assessments not coinciding with the content or the emphasis of the instruction. Thus, elearning

holds instructors to the validity of their assessments. There is also no denying

what has been taught in e-learning due to its public and replicable nature. This increases

accountability from the perspective of the consumer (i.e., the student). Additionally, the

communications capabilities of asynchronous e-learning allow for greater sampling of

student performance, thus opening the door to opportunities for learners to influence the

type and range of assessments made of their performance.

We must move away from viewing assessment from the perspective of periodic

exams and graded activities, the results of which may or may not be discussed with the

class, to considering it in the context of e-learning where students come to view their

relationship with the instructor as one-on-one instruction. As this occurs, assessment

can become a continuous process, much like formative evaluation in improvement of a

course. It has been our experience that students truly value the personal focus on their

work and the obvious efforts to enhance their performance as they progress through the

instructional experiences at their own pace. The flexibility of time and place valued by

students in asynchronous e-learning facilitates the use of assessment strategies as

integral aspects of instruction. In face-to-face instruction, the same level of assessment

may be viewed by instructors and/or students as excessively time consuming and even

detracting from instruction.

Assessment Options

In viewing the range of assessment options available through e-learning, it is

easy to say that they are little different from those routinely employed in face to face

instruction. For example, Morgan and O’Reilly (1999) describe five different types of

assessment activities that are familiar:

• Ungraded activities and feedback built into study materials

• Self-assessment quizzes and tests that allow learners to check their own


• Formal feedback on assignments from instructors, peers, or work place

colleagues or mentors


• Informal dialogue with instructors, peers or others

• Ungraded tests that prepare learners for formal graded assessments

While these are familiar and not unique to e-learning the difference is in how

technology makes them more feasible and possibly more effective to plan and execute.


In the online courses taught by Meyen (Meyen, Lian & Tangen, 1997)

assessments typically include a mid-term plus a final exam, a literature review exercise,

a collaborative project, and approximately 30 activities, all embedded or strategically

placed in the course. With the exception of the exams, these are constructivist activities

that engage students in demonstrating continuous progress, and each provides the

instructor an opportunity to intervene, as necessary, via reinforcement, directions,

and/or correction through feedback. By comparison, when teaching the same course in

a traditional format one day a week, Meyen was unable to provide the same level of

feedback or strategically deliver the feedback at a time when the student was engaged

in the activity. The submission of activities as independent learning experiences or as a

vehicle for the structuring collaborative projects and the return of responses by email is

seen by students as adding significantly to the usefulness of feedback.

Indeed, it is the capacity for timely and frequent feedback that transforms an

assessment experience into an instructional opportunity. Wiggins (1998) defines

feedback as providing a person information on how he or she performed in light of

what he or she attempted. A critical factor in providing meaningful feedback is the

closeness of the feedback to the task that is the focus of the feedback. That is, if

students are to maximally benefit from the feedback they must be able to relate the

feedback to the logic they employed in generating their response. In discussing

instructor support for facilitating feedback in a Web environment, Collis, De Boar, and

Slotman (2000) refer to the practical implications of feedback in the context of time

expenditures, clarity of expectations for students, and efficiency of managing the

overall submission and feedback process. Collis and colleagues go on to describe

TeleTOP, a Web-based, support system. Inherent in the system is the capability to link


to types of responses, thus reducing demands on the instructor while maintaining

effective feedback to the students. Examples of links include:

Example 1. Personal feedback by the instructor to an individual assignment

Example 2. Model-answer provided by the instructor

Example 3. Peer evaluation provided by the student(s)

Example 4. Automatic direct feedback provided by the computer

If assessment is to be integral to instruction, feedback is central to the assessment

process. E-learning makes this more achievable than traditional forms of instruction

when factors of time and access to information are concerned.

In discussing continuous assessment in Web-based environments, Kerka and

Wonacott (2000) stress the importance of pacing, feedback, and learning quality,

arguing that pacing and feedback directly affect whether learners study and learn and

how effectively they do so. These are features that are central to e-learning and easily

accommodated in e-learning environments due to the ease of using electronic


Lessons Learned from Assessing Student Performance

in E-Learning Environments

In assessing student performance through e-learning we have capitalized on the

capabilities of e-learning in integrating assessments into the instructional process.

Electronic communications combined with the development processes required to place

a course in an e-learning format facilitate the integration of assessments into the

structuring of the content, assignments, collaborative projects, creation of products and

evaluation procedures. We have found that in e-learning assessments can be made less

obtrusive and transformed to instructional strategies in a manner that causes students to

view assessments as opportunities to demonstrate what is being learned rather than as

evidence for grading.


Following are examples of assessment techniques that have been employed

successfully over 12 consecutive semesters in fully online asynchronous graduate-level

courses. The courses are structured around 16 lessons in which the instruction primarily

consists of multimedia lectures involving streaming media in combination with access

to selected resources in the form of readings, research summaries, and lists of URLs.

Each lesson is accompanied by at least one activity requiring a response from students

to demonstrate their understanding of the lesson content. Formative data are also

collected on each lesson as input for the instructor in improving the lessons and the

course. Finally, at the completion of the course students provide feedback via an

instrument designed to assess teaching effectiveness. This is the same instrument as

used institutionwide to assess instruction. These formative techniques encourage

students to view assessment as a cooperative enterprise in that the instruction is being

evaluated in addition to their performance. The lesson and course evaluations are

returned anonymously to a third-party email address.

The following section includes examples of assessments that have been

employed in fully online asynchronous e-learning courses by the authors.


An example of a lesson activity in the course on curriculum development

entails the creating a design for a curriculum project the student is working on.

Specifically, the student is required to illustrate the design graphically and provide a

narrative explanation. If a student lacks the necessary skills to submit the response in a

graphic form he or she is allowed to fax the responses. This is a complex activity, in

most cases necessitating two or three exchanges of communications via email between

the instructor and the student before the student achieves a functional design. In

addition to helping the student, the process allows the instructor to observe the level at

which the students are in the initial activity and how they respond to the feedback

provided. The feedback is provided within 24 hours to enhance the student's work in

the refinement process.


This is a critical activity for the course being (on curriculum development), as it

is important to observe the student's incremental progress in addition to the final

product. In experimenting with grading we have found that it does not appear to make

much difference in students' performance whether an activity is graded or not, as long

as long as they are held to applying what is being learned through the activity in either

exams or in projects. What is important is that the students clearly know if they have

fully satisfied the instructor’s expectations for their performance on a given activity.

Literature Review Activity

As a way to expand students' knowledge of the literature on the subject of the

course, each student is assigned to do what is referred to as Focus Presentations--

basically reviews of the published literature. Students are informed in advance that their

reviews will be shared with all other students in the course. The result is that each

student is creating resources for other students and the mutual benefit is that each

student has access to large number of reviews developed by peers in the course.

Selections must be approved in advance and cannot replicate any resource included in

the structured part of the course. Knowing that their reports will be shared contributes

to the quality of students' work and adds meaning to both the assignment and the

assessment of their work. The instructor is provided a sample of the students work as

well as their perspective on what they consider literature that is relevant to the course.

The quality of the writing and the substance of the review are considered in the grading.

Collaborative Projects

Each course also includes a collaborative team project. Students are required to

form teams by communicating with peers from the course roster and subsequently

select their own team leader. Team membership and project topics are subject to

approval by the instructor, who clearly defines how the project relates to the course.

The project results in a product such as a curriculum prototype for the curriculum

development course. Instructions on the projects are embedded in five to six sequential

multimedia lessons with accompanying activities. Teams work through the lessons and

complete the activities as a collaborative effort. The instructor provides feedback to the


team leader, who is responsible for sharing the feedback with team members. Each

activity response is reviewed by the instructor as an independent element of the project.

Teams may follow up with the instructor on feedback pertaining to any activity

response to ensure that they understand the respective element of the project covered in

the activity. After completing the activities associated with the project, the team

integrates the feedback into a revision of the project and then submits it as a cohesive

product for evaluation. The number of email communications between the instructor

and the team leader averages about 15 plus feedback on the graded project. Since team

work is one of the goals of the course, each student receives that same grade on the

project. This approach to assessing performance works well when an e-learning course

involves a substantive outcome that is applied in nature and to be effective in real life

involves a group process. Evaluation is based primarily on how effectively the team

meets the requirements of each element of the project and the extent to which they use

the instructor's feedback to improve on the final project as a useful product.

In e-learning courses where the project assignment has been used, the

evaluation of the project contributes about 30 percent to the course grade. In only two

incidences have students reported that a team member did not contribute equally to the

group effort. Students largely use electronic resources to carry out the project, but they

also meet face to face if circumstances permit but it is not required. The response to the

collaborative projects has been very positive. The most difficult aspect of the project

process appears to be searching out team members and reaching an agreement on the

project topic. This is viewed as an important outcome in itself.


Viewing assessment as integral to instruction opens up many opportunities for

sampling student performance. Minimum use is made of quizzes, and exams are limited

to the traditional mid-term and final exams. Exams are given online, with students

having the option of submitting their responses online, by fax or delivering them to the

instructor. The exams are a mixture of essay and objective items depending on the

nature of the course content. Since the courses are self-paced, students take the exams


at different times. To maximize the instructional value of the exams, detailed feedback

is given on each item. Exams are graded in sets to help the instructor maintain a frame

of reference for the expected performance.

In teaching online, there is always the issue of security and whether the student

enrolled is actually the person completing the exams. In the future technology will help

solve that problem. The courses reported here include an average of over 30 samples of

student performance apart from the exams. Given the large number of opportunities to

respond, it is unlikely that the probability of cheating is any greater than they would be

in a traditional course. Nevertheless, instructors need to be alert to indicators suggesting

cheating. This can be controlled partially in the design of the course and in the

structuring of what is assessed via exams and other samples of student work. Proctored

exams represent another option.

Student Reports in Real Time

A vehicle for assessing student performance that has proven to be helpful in

evaluating performance in e-learning is the team report. To be effective, this requires a

synchronous experience. For that reason, we have not used it in the asynchronous

courses but have tried it in an online seminar that mixes synchronous with

asynchronous techniques. Teams are formed to research a particular topic on which

they are to prepare a narrative report. A Power Point presentation and use of an audio

resource are used to make a live presentation. The Power Point presentation is posted in

advance of the scheduled report time so other students enrolled in the class can review

it prior to the session and also have the presentation on their desk top when the team

reports. Students need not be at the same place to participate, but arrangements are

made for group sites if members wish to be in small groups; otherwise they can

participate individually from wherever they are able to access a computer and a

telephone. It is important for team members to participate in all aspects of preparing

and presenting the report. Creating the Power Point display is one exception as some

team members may be more experienced in the use of Power Point.


This technique not only allows instructors to observe behaviors that are not

evident when assessing text- and product- type responses, it also allows the instructor to

probe individual team members using the audio capabilities. The key is to structure

sufficient time for the interaction versus the presentation. We have allowed the final

narrative report to be submitted following feedback on the report. We have

experimented with peer evaluations with varied results. Students do differentiate in

their assessments of peers. One concern has been students' varied background

knowledge on the topics of the reports. It is not clear that more knowledge necessarily

contributes to a more objective assessment. Our approach to the peer evaluations has

been to play down the quality of the presentations and to focus on the substance of the

reports as students tend to be impressed with the quality of presentations, often

overlooking weaknesses in the substance. However, we believe that peer evaluations in

the right context can be effective and can add to the instructional value of the

experience. In this situation the emphasis is on reviewing and reporting research so the

organization and presentations of information as perceived by others in a reasonable

aspect of performance assessment.

Journal Entries

Because e-learning is still a new experience for most students, we have found

that it is beneficial to engage them in reflection. Thus, students are asked to maintain a

journal of their experiences as they progress through the course. The guidelines are

very general--they are instructed merely to record their thoughts about the instructional

experience. This need not occur each day but should happen on a regular basis. The

entries may range from comments about an activity, to the lack of clarity of a lecture,

the time required to access a resource, or students' personal reaction to the mode of

instruction. The intent is to make them aware of the different features of e-learning on

the assumption that they personally may me become engaged in developing e-learning

in the future and/or will be enrolled in additional e-learning classes. The reaction has

been especially positive from first-time students, whereas students experienced in elearning

find the process less useful. While this does not contribute to assessment from


the perspective of judging performance in the realm of grading, it contributes to

knowledge of student performance and thus serves as a formative feature for the

instructor. These journal entries are best shared at the conclusion of the course

following grading.

Literature Perspective on Electronic Portfolios

in Monitoring Student Progress

The monitoring of student progress via electronic portfolio development

facilitates two primary types of evaluation, formative and summative. Formative

evaluation can be used to identify strengths that can be built upon and weaknesses that

need prescriptive feedback that will encourage both instructor and student reflection on

ways to improve professional development and training. Summative evaluation serves

more of a retrospective function in that it is a documentation of achievements and

professional skills. Traditionally, portfolios have been widely used in both the visual

and performing arts as a means to provide a showcase of select pieces of an artist’s

work. The use of portfolios and performance-based assessments have become a

standard practice in business and various professions in recent years. Portfolios usually

contain select samples of work that represents the student’s or job candidate’s strengths

and weaknesses. In addition, when used in this manner, portfolio assessment provides a

more accurate means of measuring academic and professional skills. Essentially,

portfolio and performance based assessment are both ways of evaluating activities or

products that are representative of skills applied to a performance task, whether that

task is job related or associated with a series of instructional goals and objectives. In

addition to providing evidence of depth and breadth of knowledge and skills, the

professional portfolio when done thoughtfully, can serve as a “knowledge resource” for

future reference. With the emergence of e-learning, the portfolio has evolved as a

management tool for instructors and students. Thru the use of technology, the electronic

portfolio in hypermedia format can become a “personal/professional information

management” system that contributes significantly to the pedagogy of e-learning in

higher education in addition to professional development and as a tool for K-12



One of the recent trends in the field of professional development for teachers

has been the use of the professional teaching electronic portfolio. The electronic

portfolio is a way to encourage and show cases the professional development of

teachers and their teaching skills. For pre-service students, it provides an excellent

addition to a resume or curriculum vitae and is a valuable tool for marketing oneself to

future employers. The portfolio is an excellent format for presenting one’s professional

goals and philosophy of teaching to others. Additionally, and most exciting, the

portfolio can be used as a personal information management system during pre-service

education that can ultimately provide an index of resources that will be used in one’s

future teaching practice such as lesson plans, multimedia presentations, bookmarks of

favorite educational websites, handouts, and various other professional development

resources. In this context it become a tool for use in courses to record and organize

examples of what is being learned while generalizing to a product that can be employed

when they begin teaching. In this sense, an electronic portfolio transforms from a

management system while and student to later being a “teaching toolbox” that allows

all of ones professional resources to be indexed into one self-contained system that can

be stored in a variety of formats, whether CD or DVD-ROM or on any number of

external hard disk storage devices. It is also an excellent way to develop and showcase

one’s knowledge of the use of technology for instructional purposes. By using

electronic portfolios, students are developing their technology skills.

Electronic portfolios, like traditional portfolios, are selective representational

collections of student work that are made available in electronic form, on CD-ROM or

on the World Wide Web in the form of hypermedia (Barrett, 1994). What makes

electronic portfolios more engaging is the use of various forms of multimedia that can

include audio, graphics, photographs, text, and video. Recently, a number of software

packages have been developed for use in both K-12 and higher education, which allow

teachers and students to create electronic portfolios that help to document student

classroom achievement. One such program is Aurbach's "Grady Profile" (Grady, 1991)

that provides a template that allows various items to be entered and stored including


work samples, test scores, and oral presentations. Other commercially available

software programs such as Roger Wagner (1993) Publishing's "HyperStudio" and

Claris' "FileMaker Pro,"(Brewer, 1994) provide the means for teachers to develop their

own templates for portfolio assessment. While these software programs can be used to

create customized portfolios they are all proprietary solutions and therefore the trade

off is ease of use for the costs associated with the initial purchase of the software

program. The open standards of hypertext mark-up language (HTML) offers the most

flexible and least costly approach to the creation of electronic portfolios.

The use of HTML format allows users to take full advantage of the community

publishing capabilities of the World Wide Web. User friendly HTML authoring tools

are available that make web page creation simple, even for the most novice computer

user. Advantages of bringing portfolios into the web environment include the ability to

create media rich records of accomplishments or performances such as a video of a

dance recital or sports event. Moreover, the web facilitates the seamless integration of

the portfolio's media components into a cohesive and readily accessible framework.

Instead of creating a "portfolio box" with papers photos video and audio cassettes that

require several days to mail, students can now create personal web portfolio sites that

can be accessed and updated instantly by anyone at anytime with all media components

of the portfolio only a click away.

Lessons Learned From Using Electronic Portfolios

In several of our courses students are required to create and manage their own

personal course portfolio web site. At our university, students gain access to 10

megabytes of free server storage when they register to receive their email account.

Their web address is based on their email so it is easy to locate. For example, a student

with the email [email protected] website would also have a website called

http/people.ku.edu/~patsmith. We provide basic HTML templates that students can use

in creating their web site. The students then use readily available web development

tools such as DreamWeaver and to create their portfolio website.


Student Owned Electronic Portfolios

There are several advantages to the approach of students use general web

development tools to manage their own portfolio development and maintenance.

Information technologies are continuing to evolve at an exponential rate and new or

improved web development tools are emerging every few months. Some universities

are using HTML and or XML as the primary underlying technology while others are

using Adobe's Acrobat, Flash, MediaPlayer or RealPlayer. It may be too early in the

evolution of these technologies to lock in to proprietary portfolio management tools if

they restrict access to emerging information technologies.

Another advantage to student owned portfolio website is that each student learns

to control the use or misuse of the server space. At one time we provided space for

student work within the course's server space. The problem with this approach was that

students would continue to deposit version 1, 2, 3... of their media projects on the

course's web server and quickly fill up available space. When students own their web

site they are more rigorous in controlling what is on "their" space.

With the student owned portfolio approach the students are developing lifelong

skills for managing their personal web space. They choose which work from their

course portfolio to carry forward in their general portfolio and which work to exclude.

The students are also responsible for managing accessibility to sensitive personal and

academic information. This is a liability better left in the hands of the student that with

the instructor or educational institution.

The Structure of Content in Online Course Portfolios

For many of our courses we provide generic HTML templates that list contact

information including the student's name (required), email (required), photo, telephone

and address. Students are asked to write a brief (>150 word) descriptive statement that


vary depending on the course content. For example in a research seminar students

write a belief statement or philosophical perspective that provides the foundation for

their research agenda. In other courses students provide a brief description of their

current employment course expectations and/or career goals.

Other content varies with the course goals and pedagogy. Tailoring the course

portfolio's structure is a matter of requiring additional links on the portfolio web site.

In some cases these links are to other student created web sites. For example, some of

our courses incorporate project base activities where students are creating media rich

stories or reports that link to web sites. These projects integrate a wide variety of media

including photos, diagrams, animations, streaming audio and video. For these project

base activities we post the project requirements and assessment rubric. Students then

develop the project and provide a link to the project web site from their course portfolio

web site.

Some of the content for courses is best revealed in progressive manner. For

example the course might involve a journaling activity where students are adding new

information to a report each week that describes field observations, or new information

that they have discovered. Ancillary web site development also works well for these

progressive activities where students provide a link from their course portfolio web site

to a web page that is updated each weak.

Exams and Portfolios

Many of our examinations take the form of written documents that are most

easily saved as a Microsoft Word (.doc) or Rich Text Format (.rtf) document. In these

case the exams are posted at a given time and students are required to post or email

their responses on or before the due period. Examinations provide somewhat more

involved security requirements than other information in the students’ course portfolio.

In many cases the students simply email their exams to the instructor and refrain from

posting the link to their course portfolio until after the due period. We have recently


explored the use of electronic keys to provide access to sensitive materials. In this case

the instructor creates a password for each student that the student uses to provide the

instructor with access to the sensitive material in their web site.

Group Collaboration in Online Portfolios

Our courses often involve students working together in group activities to

develop artifacts that reflect what they have learned. The artifacts for these activities

may take the form of papers, PowerPoint slides, group presentations and/or media rich

websites. Each member contributes to the artifacts in unique and group roles. The

online environment has proven particularly productive for these type of group

activities. Many of our students are practicing professionals who live at considerable

distance from each other. Student controlled web sites provide these students with an

environment where they can contribute to product development from anyplace at

anytime. For these group projects activities we ask each students to create a link from

their course portfolio web site to a page that describes their role and how they benefited

from the development of the group product. This page then links to their groups



The newness of e-learning as a mode of instruction in personnel preparation makes

reliance on shared personal experiences important in furthering the development of best

practices. While the literature on instruction in e-learning environments is emerging

through traditional forms of scholarly dissemination and web sites, much of what is

occurring has not yet found its way into accessible sources. This is largely due to the

time required to develop, employ and validate practices prior to sharing them. In the

space available we have tried to provide perspectives on the literature while at the same

time sharing from our personal experiences in e-learning over the past seven years.

While the applications have been subjected to repeated use and evaluation over several

years, they may not generalize to all e-learning environments. They are presented here

in the context of the position that the emerging e-learning pedagogy enhances the


opportunity to fully integrate assessment into the instructional process and implement

instructional management systems for instructors and students in the form of electronic


Following are web sites we have found to be useful.

Using Technology to Support Alternative Assessment and Electronic Portfolios

This website provides information regarding the use of technology to support

alternative assessment and electronic portfolio development. It is maintained by Dr.

Helen Barrett, Assistant Professor, Educational Technology, School of Education,

University of Alaska Anchorage.

URL: http://transition.alaska.edu/www/portfolios.html

Assessing Students Online

This website focuses on various aspects of online assessment including the purpose of

assessment, the advantages and disadvantages of online assessment, as well as

providing links to resources for creating online assessments.

URL: http://www.newcastle.edu.au/department/so/assess.htm

Creating Multimedia/Interactive Tests for the Internet in 10 Minutes

This paper explains ways that instructors can create multimedia/interactive tests,

surveys, and assignments for the Internet using QuizPlease software.

URL: http://www.aln.org/alnweb/magazine/issue2/rob.htm

Rubrics for Web Lessons

This site focuses on authentic assessment and the use of rubrics with examples,

templates, and links to other related resources.

URL: http://edweb.sdsu.edu/webquest/rubrics/weblessons.htm


Assessment/Testing/Evaluation Issues

This page is the Module 5 – Evaluation checklist from the instructional design section

of the Parkland College Online Faculty Handbook.

(URL: http://online.parkland.cc.il.us/ofh/ )

URL: http://online.parkland.cc.il.us/ofh/Assessment/Mod5Issues.htm

MVCR Course on Student Assessment in Online Courses

This is an online course that focuses on various assessment formats and theories that

can be used for evaluating students in online courses. Topics include: alternative

assessment strategies, linking assessment with curriculum and instruction, asessment

reliability and consistency, creating scoring rubrics, and strategies to minimize cheating


URL: http://www.mvcr.org/catalog/showcourseinfo.asp?courseID=4

ADEC Distance Education Consortium

This is the website for the American Distance Education Consortium. This site provides

a comprehensive list of general resources for distance education.

URL: http://www.adec.edu/

Center for Effective Teaching and Learning – The University of Texas

at El Paso. This site provides information and tools for developing and assessing

teaching portfolios.

URL: http://www.utep.edu/~cetal/portfoli/index.htm



Barrett, H. C. Technology-supported assessment portfolios. The Computing Teacher

21, March 1994, pp. 9-12.

Brewer, G. (1994). "FileMaker Pro" [Computer program]. Santa Clara, CA: Claris


Collis. B., De Boar, W. & Slotman, K., (2001). Feedback for web-based assignments.

Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 17, 306-313.

Financial Times Business Education, 3 April 2000.

Grady, M. P. (1991). "Grady Profile" [Computer program]. St. Louis, MO: Aurbach &

Associates, Inc.

Higher Education Consortium for Special Education. (2001). Policy, Program, and

Funding Recommendations for the Preparation of Qualified Personnel under

Part D of IDEA. A Position Paper of the Higher Education Consortium for

Special Education. University of Kentucky. Lexington, KY

IDC. (2001). IDC's worldwide corporate e-Learning market forecast and analysis,

1999-2004. . Retrieved from


Kerka, S., & Wonacott. M.E. (2000). Assessing learners online: practitioner file.

Columbus: Ohio State University, ERIC Clearing House on Adult, Career, and

Vocational Education Center on Education and Training for Employment.


Kibby, M. (1999). Assessing students online. The University of New Castle. Retrieved

from http://www.newcastle.edu.au/department/so/assess.htm

Management Team for Innovations in Distance Education, Penn State University, 1988.

McConnell, D. (1999). Examining a collaborative assessment process in networked

lifelong learning. Journal of Computer Learning, Vol. 15, 232-243.

Meyen, E.L. (2000). Using technology to move research to practice: The Online

Academy. Their World 2000. New York: National Center for Learning


Meyen, E. L., Deshler, D., Skrtic, T. M., Lenz, B. K., Sailor, W., & Chaffin, J. D.

(2001). An academy: Report on linking teacher education to advances in

research. Lawrence, KS: Author. (OSEP PR/Award no. H029K73002).

Meyen, E.L, Lian, C.T., and Tangen, P. (1997). Developing Online Instruction: One

Model, Focus on autism and other developmental disabilities. 12, 159-165.

Morgan, C., & O’Reilly, M. (1999). Assessing open and distance learners. London:

Kogan Page.

United States Internet Council. (2000). State of the internet 2000. Washington, DC:

U.S. Government Printing Office.


U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2001). The

Condition of Education 2001. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing


Wagner, R. & O’Keefe, M. (1993-97). Hyperstudio, v. 3.1.3. [Computer software]. San

Diego, California: Roger Wagner Publishing.

Wiggins, G. (1998). Educative assessment: designing assessments to reform and

improve group performance. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

تواصل معنا

الجدول الدراسي

روابط مكتبات


التوحد مش مرض

متلازمة داون

روابط هامة

برنامج كشف الإنتحال العلمي (تورنتن)

روابط مهمة للأوتيزم

ساعات الإستشارات النفسية والتربوية

تجول عبر الانترنت

spinning earth photo: spinning earth color spinning_earth_color_79x79.gif

موعد تسليم المشروع البحثي

على طالبات المستوى الثامن  شعبة رقم (147) مقرر LED 424 الالتزام بتسليم التكليفات الخاصة بالمشروع في الموعد المحدد  (3/8/1440هـ)


معايير تقييم المشروع البحثي الطلابي


ندوة الدور الاجتماعي للتعليم


حالة الطقس

المجمعة حالة الطقس

الساعات المكتبية

التميز في العمل الوظيفي


(التميز في العمل الوظيفي)

برنامج تدريبي مقدم إلى إدارة تعليم محافظة الغاط – إدارة الموارد البشرية - وحدة تطوير الموارد البشرية يوم الأربعاء 3/ 5 / 1440 هـ. الوقت: 8 ص- 12 ظهرًا بمركز التدريب التربوي (بنات) بالغاط واستهدف قياديات ومنسوبات إدارة التعليم بالغاط

تشخيص وعلاج التهتهة في الكلام


حملة سرطان الأطفال(سنداً لأطفالنا)


اليوم العالمي للطفل


المهارات الناعمة ومخرجات التعلم


المهارات الناعمة

المهارات الناعمة مفهوم يربط بين التكوين والتعليم وبين حاجات سوق العمل، تعتبر مجالاً واسعاً وحديثا يتسم بالشمولية ويرتبط بالجوانب النفسية والاجتماعية عند الطالب الذي يمثل مخرجات تعلم أي مؤسسة تعليمية، لذلك؛ فإن هذه المهارات تضاف له باستمرار – وفق متغيرات سوق العمل وحاجة المجتمع – وهي مهارات جديدة مثل مهارات إدارة الأزمات ومهارة حل المشاكل وغيرها. كما أنها تمثلالقدرات التي يمتلكها الفرد وتساهم في تطوير ونجاح المؤسسة التي ينتمي إليها. وترتبط هذه المهارات بالتعامل الفعّال وتكوين العلاقات مع الآخرينومن أهم المهارات الناعمة:


مهارات التفكير الناقد

مهارات الفكر الناقد والقدرة على التطوير من خلال التمكن من أساليب التقييم والحكم واستنتاج الحلول والأفكار الخلاقة، وهي من بين المهارات الناعمة الأكثر طلبا وانتشارا، وقد بدأت الجامعات العربية تضع لها برامج تدريب خاصة أو تدمجها في المواد الدراسية القريبة منها لأنه بات ثابتا أنها من أهم المؤهلات التي تفتح باب بناء وتطوير الذات أمام الطالب سواء في مسيرته التعليمية أو المهنية.


الصحة النفسية لأطفال متلازمة داون وأسرهم




لا للتعصب - نعم للحوار

يوم اليتيم العربي



موقع يساعد على تحرير الكتابة باللغة الإنجليزية


تطبيق يقوم تلقائيًا باكتشاف الأخطاء النحوية والإملائية وعلامات الترقيم واختيار الكلمات وأخطاء الأسلوب في الكتابة

Grammarly: Free Writing Assistant

مخرجات التعلم

تصنيف بلوم لقياس مخرجات التعلم


التعلم القائم على النواتج (المخرجات)

التعلم القائم على المخرجات يركز على تعلم الطالب خلال استخدام عبارات نواتج التعلم التي تصف ما هو متوقع من المتعلم معرفته، وفهمه، والقدرة على أدائه بعد الانتهاء من موقف تعليمي، وتقديم أنشطة التعلم التي تساعد الطالب على اكتساب تلك النواتج، وتقويم مدى اكتساب الطالب لتلك النواتج من خلال استخدام محكات تقويم محدودة.

ما هي مخرجات التعلم؟

عبارات تبرز ما سيعرفه الطالب أو يكون قادراً على أدائه نتيجة للتعليم أو التعلم أو كليهما معاً في نهاية فترة زمنية محددة (مقرر – برنامج – مهمة معينة – ورشة عمل – تدريب ميداني) وأحياناً تسمى أهداف التعلم)

خصائص مخرجات التعلم

أن تكون واضحة ومحددة بدقة. يمكن ملاحظتها وقياسها. تركز على سلوك المتعلم وليس على نشاط التعلم. متكاملة وقابلة للتطوير والتحويل. تمثيل مدى واسعا من المعارف والمهارات المعرفية والمهارات العامة.


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