Dr. Mona Tawakkul Elsayed

Associate Prof. of Mental Health and Special Education

Assessing and Moni



Assessing and Monitoring Student Progress


In E-Learning Personnel Preparation Environment


Edward L. Meyen, Ronald J. Aust, Robert Isaacson


The University of Kansas


e-Learning Design Lab


3061 Dole Human Development Center


Lawrence, Kansas, 66045


785-864-0675


[email protected]


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Introduction


With the advent of the Internet a new form of pedagogy has emerged that has


unprecedented potential for expanding access to and improving the effectiveness of


personnel preparation programs in meeting national needs in special education. This


new form of instruction has spawned many questions related to effectiveness,


responsiveness of adult learners, appropriateness for teacher education, and viability for


the future. A brief look at what is occurring will help build a perspective on e-learning


in personnel preparation.


In the United States, 97 percent of full-time faculty and staff at two- and fouryear


institutions of higher education have access to the Internet, and 40 percent use


Web sites to post course-related information (U.S. Department of Education, 2001). In


recent years, virtual universities, with no prior education histories, have come into


being, attracting large enrollments. This has contributed to universities responding by


placing courses and degrees online. For example, the Online Academy, a project funded


by the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP), produced 22 online modules for


teacher education that were adopted by over 160 universities (Meyen, 2000). Nearly


710,000 students in 1998 were enrolled in at least one online course, and that figure is



predicted to reach 2.2 million by 2002. (Financial Times—Business Education, April



3, 2000). In the general-use market some industry estimates predict that the number of


users worldwide will pass the one billion mark by 2005 (United States Internet Council,


2000). Similarly, the corporate e-learning market is expected to surpass the billion


mark by 2004, up from billion in 1999 (IDC, 2001).


Questions related to the capacity to deliver e-learning and the acceptance by


adult learners in the professions of this new mode of instruction have been sufficiently


validated to warrant investing in research and development of e-learning in teacher


education. The growing need for special education teachers and for professional


development on the part of practicing professionals in special education is well


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documented (Higher Education Consortium for Special Education, 2001). What is not


clear is the level of commitment by agencies and teacher education programs to


research and development as a way to build on what is known about teaching and


learning in maximizing the power of e-learning for adults. This is essential if we are to


leverage this new capacity in meeting national personnel needs. While funding agencies


such as OSEP have demonstrated leadership by supporting e-learning projects, they


have tended to support initiatives that result in content-based programs. However


important these programs are, support is needed of work targeted at improving


instructional designs, expanded features, e-learning teaching/development tools,


maximizing emerging technologies to personnel preparation applications, instructional


management options for e-learning environments, and research on matching the


attributes of adult learners with the instructional and assessment features of e-learning.


We are not talking here about replacing traditional approaches to personnel


preparation with e-learning strategies. Rather, we are proposing that major attention be


paid to exploring how to make this new form of pedagogy, with all its potential and


shortcomings, maximally effective in the shortest period of time while also generalizing


the best features to face-to-face instruction. Since it may become the dominant


methodology for adult learners in the future, it should be made as powerful as possible.


This requires attending to what we know about the principles of teaching and learning


and determining how these principles generalize to e-learning as well as focusing on


techniques that are unique to e-learning. In these efforts, it is important that the


knowledge base and experimentation with applying this knowledge base in e-learning


environments drive new designs and applications in personnel preparation rather than


allowing technology alone to do so, which currently seems to be the case. Unless


research and validated practices drive the use of technology in personnel preparation,


we risk the development of models that are less than optimal or, even worse, that fail to


achieve their potential. E-learning is a very young pedagogy and warrants the benefits


of reasoned inquiry and controlled experimentation that comes with research.


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The present article on assessing performance and monitoring student progress


via electronic portfolios is based on the authors' personal experience. Meyen has taught


asynchronous online courses employing streaming media full time since 1996. Aust has


been using Web -based supports and varied versions of enhancing access to and


management of student work in his courses for an equal period of time. In addition,


both served in leadership roles when creating the instructional design and the


development tool for the Online Academy (Meyen, Skrtic, Deshler, Lenz, Sailor &


Chaffin, 2000). They are now part of the e-Learning Design Lab involving researchers


from the departments of engineering and education. Examples will be used to illustrate


the practices described. The intent is to focus on experiences in online instruction and


web-based supports in providing examples of how the pedagogy of e-learning


accommodates good teaching practices and the contributions of employing sound


assessment practices and the use of electronic portfolios in building a more powerful


pedagogy of e-learning.


A Literature Perspective on


E-Learning Assessments and Student Performance


The following discussion of assessment of student performance in e-learning


environments for personnel preparation is based on our conviction that assessment is


integral to instruction, and that it must be continuous and maximize feedback.


Principles of Assessment


While the underlying principles of assessing the performance of adult learners do


not change when applied to e-learning, the e-learning environment does differ


significantly from traditional modes of instruction. The e-learning environment creates


opportunities for and possibly demands more intensive assessment. That is, while


technology adds a level of efficiency to assessment in e-learning environments, it must


also compensate for the lack of easy access to personal observation. Pennsylvania State


University (1998) has developed a set of principles to guide assessment of e-learning in


distance education and has published a guide for translating them into practice. These


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principles reinforce the importance of integrating assessment with instruction. They are


as follows:


1. Assessment instruments and activities should be congruent with the learning


goals and skills required of the learner throughout a distance education


program or course.


2. Assessment and management strategies should be integral parts of the


learning experience, enabling learners to assess their progress, to identify


areas of review, and to reestablish immediate learning or lesson goals.


3. Assessment and measurement strategies should accommodate the special


needs, characteristics, and situations of the distance learner.


In discussing assessment of student performance online, Kibby (1999) sees


assessment as central to the teaching learning process and as part of the management


system. Assessments should measure student performance and result in feedback to


students about their performance. Kibby goes on to detail nine decisions to be made


when developing assessments for Web-based instruction.


1. Which perspectives of learning are going to be assessed, cognitive (acquisition


of knowledge), behavioral (skill development), or humanistic (values and


attitudes)?


2. Who is going to make the assessment, the student, their peers, or the instructor?


3. Will assessment strategies be learning experiences in themselves?


4. Is the assessment to be formative (providing feedback during learning) or


summative (measuring learning at the end of the process)?


5. Are judgments of performance to made against peer standards (norm


referenced) or established criteria (criterion referenced)?


6. How can assessment provide a balance between structure and freedom?


7. Will the assessment be authentic, related to real life situations?


8. Will the assessment be integrated, testing a range of knowledge and skills?


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9. How can reliability and validity of assessment be assured?


Related to networked learning, McConnell (1999) observes that assessment may be


one of the last remaining bastions of academic life in that in a formal course it is


usually the one element where the learner has no, or very little, say or control. The


instructor usually carries out the assessment unilaterally with the final decision about


learner performance being their personal perspective. While this may be driven by the


professional responsibility of the instructor for determining proficiency in skills or


knowledge of the subject matter, assessment can be made a more integral part of the elearning


teaching/learning process. In doing so, it becomes feasible to design


assessments that permit the learners to allow their performance to influence subsequent


assessments. This is particularly true in e-learning where technology allows for


frequent and varied assessments. The key in assessing the performance of students in elearning


is to remain focused on the learner’s attainment of the instructor’s stated goals


and objectives. In doing so it is important to resist opportunities to impose assessments


merely because technology facilitates the process.


E-Learning Design Implications


Because e-learning largely requires that courses are designed in advance of


teaching, the instructor as the developer has an opportunity to not only plan situations


to embed assessments in the instruction, but also to review the instructional content and


planned experiences prior to implementation of the e-learning program. This can


ensure the validity of the assessments. The development requirement of e-learning


requires that the instructor (assuming he or she is also the course content developer)


employs the full range of instructional skills in the teaching e-learning process. They


cannot rely on interpersonal skills during teaching to compensate for weaknesses of


organization in the course or the lack substance or timeliness of the content, as is


possible in traditional course. Nor can well-structured learning experiences compensate


for a lack of communication skills in the e-learning teaching process. All elements of


the instruction must be in place in advance. For this reason there is no excuse for


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assessments not coinciding with the content or the emphasis of the instruction. Thus, elearning


holds instructors to the validity of their assessments. There is also no denying


what has been taught in e-learning due to its public and replicable nature. This increases


accountability from the perspective of the consumer (i.e., the student). Additionally, the


communications capabilities of asynchronous e-learning allow for greater sampling of


student performance, thus opening the door to opportunities for learners to influence the


type and range of assessments made of their performance.


We must move away from viewing assessment from the perspective of periodic


exams and graded activities, the results of which may or may not be discussed with the


class, to considering it in the context of e-learning where students come to view their


relationship with the instructor as one-on-one instruction. As this occurs, assessment


can become a continuous process, much like formative evaluation in improvement of a


course. It has been our experience that students truly value the personal focus on their


work and the obvious efforts to enhance their performance as they progress through the


instructional experiences at their own pace. The flexibility of time and place valued by


students in asynchronous e-learning facilitates the use of assessment strategies as


integral aspects of instruction. In face-to-face instruction, the same level of assessment


may be viewed by instructors and/or students as excessively time consuming and even


detracting from instruction.


Assessment Options


In viewing the range of assessment options available through e-learning, it is


easy to say that they are little different from those routinely employed in face to face


instruction. For example, Morgan and O’Reilly (1999) describe five different types of


assessment activities that are familiar:


• Ungraded activities and feedback built into study materials


• Self-assessment quizzes and tests that allow learners to check their own


learning


• Formal feedback on assignments from instructors, peers, or work place


colleagues or mentors


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• Informal dialogue with instructors, peers or others


• Ungraded tests that prepare learners for formal graded assessments


While these are familiar and not unique to e-learning the difference is in how


technology makes them more feasible and possibly more effective to plan and execute.


Feedback


In the online courses taught by Meyen (Meyen, Lian & Tangen, 1997)


assessments typically include a mid-term plus a final exam, a literature review exercise,


a collaborative project, and approximately 30 activities, all embedded or strategically


placed in the course. With the exception of the exams, these are constructivist activities


that engage students in demonstrating continuous progress, and each provides the


instructor an opportunity to intervene, as necessary, via reinforcement, directions,


and/or correction through feedback. By comparison, when teaching the same course in


a traditional format one day a week, Meyen was unable to provide the same level of


feedback or strategically deliver the feedback at a time when the student was engaged


in the activity. The submission of activities as independent learning experiences or as a


vehicle for the structuring collaborative projects and the return of responses by email is


seen by students as adding significantly to the usefulness of feedback.


Indeed, it is the capacity for timely and frequent feedback that transforms an


assessment experience into an instructional opportunity. Wiggins (1998) defines


feedback as providing a person information on how he or she performed in light of


what he or she attempted. A critical factor in providing meaningful feedback is the


closeness of the feedback to the task that is the focus of the feedback. That is, if


students are to maximally benefit from the feedback they must be able to relate the


feedback to the logic they employed in generating their response. In discussing


instructor support for facilitating feedback in a Web environment, Collis, De Boar, and


Slotman (2000) refer to the practical implications of feedback in the context of time


expenditures, clarity of expectations for students, and efficiency of managing the


overall submission and feedback process. Collis and colleagues go on to describe


TeleTOP, a Web-based, support system. Inherent in the system is the capability to link


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to types of responses, thus reducing demands on the instructor while maintaining


effective feedback to the students. Examples of links include:


Example 1. Personal feedback by the instructor to an individual assignment


Example 2. Model-answer provided by the instructor


Example 3. Peer evaluation provided by the student(s)


Example 4. Automatic direct feedback provided by the computer


If assessment is to be integral to instruction, feedback is central to the assessment


process. E-learning makes this more achievable than traditional forms of instruction


when factors of time and access to information are concerned.


In discussing continuous assessment in Web-based environments, Kerka and


Wonacott (2000) stress the importance of pacing, feedback, and learning quality,


arguing that pacing and feedback directly affect whether learners study and learn and


how effectively they do so. These are features that are central to e-learning and easily


accommodated in e-learning environments due to the ease of using electronic


communications.


Lessons Learned from Assessing Student Performance


in E-Learning Environments


In assessing student performance through e-learning we have capitalized on the


capabilities of e-learning in integrating assessments into the instructional process.


Electronic communications combined with the development processes required to place


a course in an e-learning format facilitate the integration of assessments into the


structuring of the content, assignments, collaborative projects, creation of products and


evaluation procedures. We have found that in e-learning assessments can be made less


obtrusive and transformed to instructional strategies in a manner that causes students to


view assessments as opportunities to demonstrate what is being learned rather than as


evidence for grading.


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Following are examples of assessment techniques that have been employed


successfully over 12 consecutive semesters in fully online asynchronous graduate-level


courses. The courses are structured around 16 lessons in which the instruction primarily


consists of multimedia lectures involving streaming media in combination with access


to selected resources in the form of readings, research summaries, and lists of URLs.


Each lesson is accompanied by at least one activity requiring a response from students


to demonstrate their understanding of the lesson content. Formative data are also


collected on each lesson as input for the instructor in improving the lessons and the


course. Finally, at the completion of the course students provide feedback via an


instrument designed to assess teaching effectiveness. This is the same instrument as


used institutionwide to assess instruction. These formative techniques encourage


students to view assessment as a cooperative enterprise in that the instruction is being


evaluated in addition to their performance. The lesson and course evaluations are


returned anonymously to a third-party email address.


The following section includes examples of assessments that have been


employed in fully online asynchronous e-learning courses by the authors.


Activities


An example of a lesson activity in the course on curriculum development


entails the creating a design for a curriculum project the student is working on.


Specifically, the student is required to illustrate the design graphically and provide a


narrative explanation. If a student lacks the necessary skills to submit the response in a


graphic form he or she is allowed to fax the responses. This is a complex activity, in


most cases necessitating two or three exchanges of communications via email between


the instructor and the student before the student achieves a functional design. In


addition to helping the student, the process allows the instructor to observe the level at


which the students are in the initial activity and how they respond to the feedback


provided. The feedback is provided within 24 hours to enhance the student's work in


the refinement process.


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This is a critical activity for the course being (on curriculum development), as it


is important to observe the student's incremental progress in addition to the final


product. In experimenting with grading we have found that it does not appear to make


much difference in students' performance whether an activity is graded or not, as long


as long as they are held to applying what is being learned through the activity in either


exams or in projects. What is important is that the students clearly know if they have


fully satisfied the instructor’s expectations for their performance on a given activity.


Literature Review Activity


As a way to expand students' knowledge of the literature on the subject of the


course, each student is assigned to do what is referred to as Focus Presentations--


basically reviews of the published literature. Students are informed in advance that their


reviews will be shared with all other students in the course. The result is that each


student is creating resources for other students and the mutual benefit is that each


student has access to large number of reviews developed by peers in the course.


Selections must be approved in advance and cannot replicate any resource included in


the structured part of the course. Knowing that their reports will be shared contributes


to the quality of students' work and adds meaning to both the assignment and the


assessment of their work. The instructor is provided a sample of the students work as


well as their perspective on what they consider literature that is relevant to the course.


The quality of the writing and the substance of the review are considered in the grading.


Collaborative Projects


Each course also includes a collaborative team project. Students are required to


form teams by communicating with peers from the course roster and subsequently


select their own team leader. Team membership and project topics are subject to


approval by the instructor, who clearly defines how the project relates to the course.


The project results in a product such as a curriculum prototype for the curriculum


development course. Instructions on the projects are embedded in five to six sequential


multimedia lessons with accompanying activities. Teams work through the lessons and


complete the activities as a collaborative effort. The instructor provides feedback to the


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team leader, who is responsible for sharing the feedback with team members. Each


activity response is reviewed by the instructor as an independent element of the project.


Teams may follow up with the instructor on feedback pertaining to any activity


response to ensure that they understand the respective element of the project covered in


the activity. After completing the activities associated with the project, the team


integrates the feedback into a revision of the project and then submits it as a cohesive


product for evaluation. The number of email communications between the instructor


and the team leader averages about 15 plus feedback on the graded project. Since team


work is one of the goals of the course, each student receives that same grade on the


project. This approach to assessing performance works well when an e-learning course


involves a substantive outcome that is applied in nature and to be effective in real life


involves a group process. Evaluation is based primarily on how effectively the team


meets the requirements of each element of the project and the extent to which they use


the instructor's feedback to improve on the final project as a useful product.


In e-learning courses where the project assignment has been used, the


evaluation of the project contributes about 30 percent to the course grade. In only two


incidences have students reported that a team member did not contribute equally to the


group effort. Students largely use electronic resources to carry out the project, but they


also meet face to face if circumstances permit but it is not required. The response to the


collaborative projects has been very positive. The most difficult aspect of the project


process appears to be searching out team members and reaching an agreement on the


project topic. This is viewed as an important outcome in itself.


Exams


Viewing assessment as integral to instruction opens up many opportunities for


sampling student performance. Minimum use is made of quizzes, and exams are limited


to the traditional mid-term and final exams. Exams are given online, with students


having the option of submitting their responses online, by fax or delivering them to the


instructor. The exams are a mixture of essay and objective items depending on the


nature of the course content. Since the courses are self-paced, students take the exams


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at different times. To maximize the instructional value of the exams, detailed feedback


is given on each item. Exams are graded in sets to help the instructor maintain a frame


of reference for the expected performance.


In teaching online, there is always the issue of security and whether the student


enrolled is actually the person completing the exams. In the future technology will help


solve that problem. The courses reported here include an average of over 30 samples of


student performance apart from the exams. Given the large number of opportunities to


respond, it is unlikely that the probability of cheating is any greater than they would be


in a traditional course. Nevertheless, instructors need to be alert to indicators suggesting


cheating. This can be controlled partially in the design of the course and in the


structuring of what is assessed via exams and other samples of student work. Proctored


exams represent another option.


Student Reports in Real Time


A vehicle for assessing student performance that has proven to be helpful in


evaluating performance in e-learning is the team report. To be effective, this requires a


synchronous experience. For that reason, we have not used it in the asynchronous


courses but have tried it in an online seminar that mixes synchronous with


asynchronous techniques. Teams are formed to research a particular topic on which


they are to prepare a narrative report. A Power Point presentation and use of an audio


resource are used to make a live presentation. The Power Point presentation is posted in


advance of the scheduled report time so other students enrolled in the class can review


it prior to the session and also have the presentation on their desk top when the team


reports. Students need not be at the same place to participate, but arrangements are


made for group sites if members wish to be in small groups; otherwise they can


participate individually from wherever they are able to access a computer and a


telephone. It is important for team members to participate in all aspects of preparing


and presenting the report. Creating the Power Point display is one exception as some


team members may be more experienced in the use of Power Point.


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This technique not only allows instructors to observe behaviors that are not


evident when assessing text- and product- type responses, it also allows the instructor to


probe individual team members using the audio capabilities. The key is to structure


sufficient time for the interaction versus the presentation. We have allowed the final


narrative report to be submitted following feedback on the report. We have


experimented with peer evaluations with varied results. Students do differentiate in


their assessments of peers. One concern has been students' varied background


knowledge on the topics of the reports. It is not clear that more knowledge necessarily


contributes to a more objective assessment. Our approach to the peer evaluations has


been to play down the quality of the presentations and to focus on the substance of the


reports as students tend to be impressed with the quality of presentations, often


overlooking weaknesses in the substance. However, we believe that peer evaluations in


the right context can be effective and can add to the instructional value of the


experience. In this situation the emphasis is on reviewing and reporting research so the


organization and presentations of information as perceived by others in a reasonable


aspect of performance assessment.


Journal Entries


Because e-learning is still a new experience for most students, we have found


that it is beneficial to engage them in reflection. Thus, students are asked to maintain a


journal of their experiences as they progress through the course. The guidelines are


very general--they are instructed merely to record their thoughts about the instructional


experience. This need not occur each day but should happen on a regular basis. The


entries may range from comments about an activity, to the lack of clarity of a lecture,


the time required to access a resource, or students' personal reaction to the mode of


instruction. The intent is to make them aware of the different features of e-learning on


the assumption that they personally may me become engaged in developing e-learning


in the future and/or will be enrolled in additional e-learning classes. The reaction has


been especially positive from first-time students, whereas students experienced in elearning


find the process less useful. While this does not contribute to assessment from


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the perspective of judging performance in the realm of grading, it contributes to


knowledge of student performance and thus serves as a formative feature for the


instructor. These journal entries are best shared at the conclusion of the course


following grading.


Literature Perspective on Electronic Portfolios


in Monitoring Student Progress


The monitoring of student progress via electronic portfolio development


facilitates two primary types of evaluation, formative and summative. Formative


evaluation can be used to identify strengths that can be built upon and weaknesses that


need prescriptive feedback that will encourage both instructor and student reflection on


ways to improve professional development and training. Summative evaluation serves


more of a retrospective function in that it is a documentation of achievements and


professional skills. Traditionally, portfolios have been widely used in both the visual


and performing arts as a means to provide a showcase of select pieces of an artist’s


work. The use of portfolios and performance-based assessments have become a


standard practice in business and various professions in recent years. Portfolios usually


contain select samples of work that represents the student’s or job candidate’s strengths


and weaknesses. In addition, when used in this manner, portfolio assessment provides a


more accurate means of measuring academic and professional skills. Essentially,


portfolio and performance based assessment are both ways of evaluating activities or


products that are representative of skills applied to a performance task, whether that


task is job related or associated with a series of instructional goals and objectives. In


addition to providing evidence of depth and breadth of knowledge and skills, the


professional portfolio when done thoughtfully, can serve as a “knowledge resource” for


future reference. With the emergence of e-learning, the portfolio has evolved as a


management tool for instructors and students. Thru the use of technology, the electronic


portfolio in hypermedia format can become a “personal/professional information


management” system that contributes significantly to the pedagogy of e-learning in


higher education in addition to professional development and as a tool for K-12


students.


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One of the recent trends in the field of professional development for teachers


has been the use of the professional teaching electronic portfolio. The electronic


portfolio is a way to encourage and show cases the professional development of


teachers and their teaching skills. For pre-service students, it provides an excellent


addition to a resume or curriculum vitae and is a valuable tool for marketing oneself to


future employers. The portfolio is an excellent format for presenting one’s professional


goals and philosophy of teaching to others. Additionally, and most exciting, the


portfolio can be used as a personal information management system during pre-service


education that can ultimately provide an index of resources that will be used in one’s


future teaching practice such as lesson plans, multimedia presentations, bookmarks of


favorite educational websites, handouts, and various other professional development


resources. In this context it become a tool for use in courses to record and organize


examples of what is being learned while generalizing to a product that can be employed


when they begin teaching. In this sense, an electronic portfolio transforms from a


management system while and student to later being a “teaching toolbox” that allows


all of ones professional resources to be indexed into one self-contained system that can


be stored in a variety of formats, whether CD or DVD-ROM or on any number of


external hard disk storage devices. It is also an excellent way to develop and showcase


one’s knowledge of the use of technology for instructional purposes. By using


electronic portfolios, students are developing their technology skills.


Electronic portfolios, like traditional portfolios, are selective representational


collections of student work that are made available in electronic form, on CD-ROM or


on the World Wide Web in the form of hypermedia (Barrett, 1994). What makes


electronic portfolios more engaging is the use of various forms of multimedia that can


include audio, graphics, photographs, text, and video. Recently, a number of software


packages have been developed for use in both K-12 and higher education, which allow


teachers and students to create electronic portfolios that help to document student


classroom achievement. One such program is Aurbach's "Grady Profile" (Grady, 1991)


that provides a template that allows various items to be entered and stored including


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work samples, test scores, and oral presentations. Other commercially available


software programs such as Roger Wagner (1993) Publishing's "HyperStudio" and


Claris' "FileMaker Pro,"(Brewer, 1994) provide the means for teachers to develop their


own templates for portfolio assessment. While these software programs can be used to


create customized portfolios they are all proprietary solutions and therefore the trade


off is ease of use for the costs associated with the initial purchase of the software


program. The open standards of hypertext mark-up language (HTML) offers the most


flexible and least costly approach to the creation of electronic portfolios.


The use of HTML format allows users to take full advantage of the community


publishing capabilities of the World Wide Web. User friendly HTML authoring tools


are available that make web page creation simple, even for the most novice computer


user. Advantages of bringing portfolios into the web environment include the ability to


create media rich records of accomplishments or performances such as a video of a


dance recital or sports event. Moreover, the web facilitates the seamless integration of


the portfolio's media components into a cohesive and readily accessible framework.


Instead of creating a "portfolio box" with papers photos video and audio cassettes that


require several days to mail, students can now create personal web portfolio sites that


can be accessed and updated instantly by anyone at anytime with all media components


of the portfolio only a click away.


Lessons Learned From Using Electronic Portfolios


In several of our courses students are required to create and manage their own


personal course portfolio web site. At our university, students gain access to 10


megabytes of free server storage when they register to receive their email account.


Their web address is based on their email so it is easy to locate. For example, a student


with the email [email protected] website would also have a website called


http/people.ku.edu/~patsmith. We provide basic HTML templates that students can use


in creating their web site. The students then use readily available web development


tools such as DreamWeaver and to create their portfolio website.


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Student Owned Electronic Portfolios


There are several advantages to the approach of students use general web


development tools to manage their own portfolio development and maintenance.


Information technologies are continuing to evolve at an exponential rate and new or


improved web development tools are emerging every few months. Some universities


are using HTML and or XML as the primary underlying technology while others are


using Adobe's Acrobat, Flash, MediaPlayer or RealPlayer. It may be too early in the


evolution of these technologies to lock in to proprietary portfolio management tools if


they restrict access to emerging information technologies.


Another advantage to student owned portfolio website is that each student learns


to control the use or misuse of the server space. At one time we provided space for


student work within the course's server space. The problem with this approach was that


students would continue to deposit version 1, 2, 3... of their media projects on the


course's web server and quickly fill up available space. When students own their web


site they are more rigorous in controlling what is on "their" space.


With the student owned portfolio approach the students are developing lifelong


skills for managing their personal web space. They choose which work from their


course portfolio to carry forward in their general portfolio and which work to exclude.


The students are also responsible for managing accessibility to sensitive personal and


academic information. This is a liability better left in the hands of the student that with


the instructor or educational institution.


The Structure of Content in Online Course Portfolios


For many of our courses we provide generic HTML templates that list contact


information including the student's name (required), email (required), photo, telephone


and address. Students are asked to write a brief (>150 word) descriptive statement that


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vary depending on the course content. For example in a research seminar students


write a belief statement or philosophical perspective that provides the foundation for


their research agenda. In other courses students provide a brief description of their


current employment course expectations and/or career goals.


Other content varies with the course goals and pedagogy. Tailoring the course


portfolio's structure is a matter of requiring additional links on the portfolio web site.


In some cases these links are to other student created web sites. For example, some of


our courses incorporate project base activities where students are creating media rich


stories or reports that link to web sites. These projects integrate a wide variety of media


including photos, diagrams, animations, streaming audio and video. For these project


base activities we post the project requirements and assessment rubric. Students then


develop the project and provide a link to the project web site from their course portfolio


web site.


Some of the content for courses is best revealed in progressive manner. For


example the course might involve a journaling activity where students are adding new


information to a report each week that describes field observations, or new information


that they have discovered. Ancillary web site development also works well for these


progressive activities where students provide a link from their course portfolio web site


to a web page that is updated each weak.


Exams and Portfolios


Many of our examinations take the form of written documents that are most


easily saved as a Microsoft Word (.doc) or Rich Text Format (.rtf) document. In these


case the exams are posted at a given time and students are required to post or email


their responses on or before the due period. Examinations provide somewhat more


involved security requirements than other information in the students’ course portfolio.


In many cases the students simply email their exams to the instructor and refrain from


posting the link to their course portfolio until after the due period. We have recently


20


explored the use of electronic keys to provide access to sensitive materials. In this case


the instructor creates a password for each student that the student uses to provide the


instructor with access to the sensitive material in their web site.


Group Collaboration in Online Portfolios


Our courses often involve students working together in group activities to


develop artifacts that reflect what they have learned. The artifacts for these activities


may take the form of papers, PowerPoint slides, group presentations and/or media rich


websites. Each member contributes to the artifacts in unique and group roles. The


online environment has proven particularly productive for these type of group


activities. Many of our students are practicing professionals who live at considerable


distance from each other. Student controlled web sites provide these students with an


environment where they can contribute to product development from anyplace at


anytime. For these group projects activities we ask each students to create a link from


their course portfolio web site to a page that describes their role and how they benefited


from the development of the group product. This page then links to their groups


project.


Summary


The newness of e-learning as a mode of instruction in personnel preparation makes


reliance on shared personal experiences important in furthering the development of best


practices. While the literature on instruction in e-learning environments is emerging


through traditional forms of scholarly dissemination and web sites, much of what is


occurring has not yet found its way into accessible sources. This is largely due to the


time required to develop, employ and validate practices prior to sharing them. In the


space available we have tried to provide perspectives on the literature while at the same


time sharing from our personal experiences in e-learning over the past seven years.


While the applications have been subjected to repeated use and evaluation over several


years, they may not generalize to all e-learning environments. They are presented here


in the context of the position that the emerging e-learning pedagogy enhances the


21


opportunity to fully integrate assessment into the instructional process and implement


instructional management systems for instructors and students in the form of electronic


portfolios.


Following are web sites we have found to be useful.


Using Technology to Support Alternative Assessment and Electronic Portfolios


This website provides information regarding the use of technology to support


alternative assessment and electronic portfolio development. It is maintained by Dr.


Helen Barrett, Assistant Professor, Educational Technology, School of Education,


University of Alaska Anchorage.


URL: http://transition.alaska.edu/www/portfolios.html


Assessing Students Online


This website focuses on various aspects of online assessment including the purpose of


assessment, the advantages and disadvantages of online assessment, as well as


providing links to resources for creating online assessments.


URL: http://www.newcastle.edu.au/department/so/assess.htm


Creating Multimedia/Interactive Tests for the Internet in 10 Minutes


This paper explains ways that instructors can create multimedia/interactive tests,


surveys, and assignments for the Internet using QuizPlease software.


URL: http://www.aln.org/alnweb/magazine/issue2/rob.htm


Rubrics for Web Lessons


This site focuses on authentic assessment and the use of rubrics with examples,


templates, and links to other related resources.


URL: http://edweb.sdsu.edu/webquest/rubrics/weblessons.htm


22


Assessment/Testing/Evaluation Issues


This page is the Module 5 – Evaluation checklist from the instructional design section


of the Parkland College Online Faculty Handbook.


(URL: http://online.parkland.cc.il.us/ofh/ )


URL: http://online.parkland.cc.il.us/ofh/Assessment/Mod5Issues.htm


MVCR Course on Student Assessment in Online Courses


This is an online course that focuses on various assessment formats and theories that


can be used for evaluating students in online courses. Topics include: alternative


assessment strategies, linking assessment with curriculum and instruction, asessment


reliability and consistency, creating scoring rubrics, and strategies to minimize cheating


online.


URL: http://www.mvcr.org/catalog/showcourseinfo.asp?courseID=4


ADEC Distance Education Consortium


This is the website for the American Distance Education Consortium. This site provides


a comprehensive list of general resources for distance education.


URL: http://www.adec.edu/


Center for Effective Teaching and Learning – The University of Texas


at El Paso. This site provides information and tools for developing and assessing


teaching portfolios.


URL: http://www.utep.edu/~cetal/portfoli/index.htm


23


References


Barrett, H. C. Technology-supported assessment portfolios. The Computing Teacher


21, March 1994, pp. 9-12.


Brewer, G. (1994). "FileMaker Pro" [Computer program]. Santa Clara, CA: Claris


Corporation.


Collis. B., De Boar, W. & Slotman, K., (2001). Feedback for web-based assignments.


Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 17, 306-313.


Financial Times Business Education, 3 April 2000.



Grady, M. P. (1991). "Grady Profile" [Computer program]. St. Louis, MO: Aurbach &


Associates, Inc.


Higher Education Consortium for Special Education. (2001). Policy, Program, and


Funding Recommendations for the Preparation of Qualified Personnel under


Part D of IDEA. A Position Paper of the Higher Education Consortium for


Special Education. University of Kentucky. Lexington, KY


IDC. (2001). IDC's worldwide corporate e-Learning market forecast and analysis,


1999-2004. . Retrieved from


http://www.idc.com:8080/Services/press/PR/GSV022701pr.stm


Kerka, S., & Wonacott. M.E. (2000). Assessing learners online: practitioner file.


Columbus: Ohio State University, ERIC Clearing House on Adult, Career, and


Vocational Education Center on Education and Training for Employment.


24


Kibby, M. (1999). Assessing students online. The University of New Castle. Retrieved


from http://www.newcastle.edu.au/department/so/assess.htm


Management Team for Innovations in Distance Education, Penn State University, 1988.


McConnell, D. (1999). Examining a collaborative assessment process in networked


lifelong learning. Journal of Computer Learning, Vol. 15, 232-243.


Meyen, E.L. (2000). Using technology to move research to practice: The Online


Academy. Their World 2000. New York: National Center for Learning


Disabilities.


Meyen, E. L., Deshler, D., Skrtic, T. M., Lenz, B. K., Sailor, W., & Chaffin, J. D.


(2001). An academy: Report on linking teacher education to advances in


research. Lawrence, KS: Author. (OSEP PR/Award no. H029K73002).


Meyen, E.L, Lian, C.T., and Tangen, P. (1997). Developing Online Instruction: One


Model, Focus on autism and other developmental disabilities. 12, 159-165.


Morgan, C., & O’Reilly, M. (1999). Assessing open and distance learners. London:


Kogan Page.


United States Internet Council. (2000). State of the internet 2000. Washington, DC:


U.S. Government Printing Office.


25



U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2001). The


Condition of Education 2001. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing



Office.


Wagner, R. & O’Keefe, M. (1993-97). Hyperstudio, v. 3.1.3. [Computer software]. San


Diego, California: Roger Wagner Publishing.


Wiggins, G. (1998). Educative assessment: designing assessments to reform and


improve group performance. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

تواصل معنا

الجدول الدراسي


روابط مكتبات


https://vision2030.gov.sa/


التوحد مش مرض

متلازمة داون

روابط هامة

برنامج كشف الإنتحال العلمي (تورنتن)

روابط مهمة للأوتيزم


ساعات الإستشارات النفسية والتربوية

تجول عبر الانترنت

spinning earth photo: spinning earth color spinning_earth_color_79x79.gif


موعد تسليم المشروع البحثي

على طالبات المستوى الثامن  شعبة رقم (147) مقرر LED 424 الالتزام بتسليم التكليفات الخاصة بالمشروع في الموعد المحدد  (3/8/1440هـ)


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معايير تقييم المشروع البحثي الطلابي



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ندوة الدور الاجتماعي للتعليم

 

حالة الطقس

المجمعة حالة الطقس

الساعات المكتبية


التميز في العمل الوظيفي

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(التميز في العمل الوظيفي)

برنامج تدريبي مقدم إلى إدارة تعليم محافظة الغاط – إدارة الموارد البشرية - وحدة تطوير الموارد البشرية يوم الأربعاء 3/ 5 / 1440 هـ. الوقت: 8 ص- 12 ظهرًا بمركز التدريب التربوي (بنات) بالغاط واستهدف قياديات ومنسوبات إدارة التعليم بالغاط

تشخيص وعلاج التهتهة في الكلام

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حملة سرطان الأطفال(سنداً لأطفالنا)

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اليوم العالمي للطفل

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المهارات الناعمة ومخرجات التعلم


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المهارات الناعمة

المهارات الناعمة مفهوم يربط بين التكوين والتعليم وبين حاجات سوق العمل، تعتبر مجالاً واسعاً وحديثا يتسم بالشمولية ويرتبط بالجوانب النفسية والاجتماعية عند الطالب الذي يمثل مخرجات تعلم أي مؤسسة تعليمية، لذلك؛ فإن هذه المهارات تضاف له باستمرار – وفق متغيرات سوق العمل وحاجة المجتمع – وهي مهارات جديدة مثل مهارات إدارة الأزمات ومهارة حل المشاكل وغيرها. كما أنها تمثلالقدرات التي يمتلكها الفرد وتساهم في تطوير ونجاح المؤسسة التي ينتمي إليها. وترتبط هذه المهارات بالتعامل الفعّال وتكوين العلاقات مع الآخرينومن أهم المهارات الناعمة:

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مهارات التفكير الناقد

مهارات الفكر الناقد والقدرة على التطوير من خلال التمكن من أساليب التقييم والحكم واستنتاج الحلول والأفكار الخلاقة، وهي من بين المهارات الناعمة الأكثر طلبا وانتشارا، وقد بدأت الجامعات العربية تضع لها برامج تدريب خاصة أو تدمجها في المواد الدراسية القريبة منها لأنه بات ثابتا أنها من أهم المؤهلات التي تفتح باب بناء وتطوير الذات أمام الطالب سواء في مسيرته التعليمية أو المهنية.

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الصحة النفسية لأطفال متلازمة داون وأسرهم

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m.ebrahim@mu.edu.sa



لا للتعصب - نعم للحوار

يوم اليتيم العربي

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موقع يساعد على تحرير الكتابة باللغة الإنجليزية

(Grammarly)

تطبيق يقوم تلقائيًا باكتشاف الأخطاء النحوية والإملائية وعلامات الترقيم واختيار الكلمات وأخطاء الأسلوب في الكتابة

Grammarly: Free Writing Assistant



مخرجات التعلم

تصنيف بلوم لقياس مخرجات التعلم

m.ebrahim@mu.edu.sa


التعلم القائم على النواتج (المخرجات)

التعلم القائم على المخرجات يركز على تعلم الطالب خلال استخدام عبارات نواتج التعلم التي تصف ما هو متوقع من المتعلم معرفته، وفهمه، والقدرة على أدائه بعد الانتهاء من موقف تعليمي، وتقديم أنشطة التعلم التي تساعد الطالب على اكتساب تلك النواتج، وتقويم مدى اكتساب الطالب لتلك النواتج من خلال استخدام محكات تقويم محدودة.

ما هي مخرجات التعلم؟

عبارات تبرز ما سيعرفه الطالب أو يكون قادراً على أدائه نتيجة للتعليم أو التعلم أو كليهما معاً في نهاية فترة زمنية محددة (مقرر – برنامج – مهمة معينة – ورشة عمل – تدريب ميداني) وأحياناً تسمى أهداف التعلم)

خصائص مخرجات التعلم

أن تكون واضحة ومحددة بدقة. يمكن ملاحظتها وقياسها. تركز على سلوك المتعلم وليس على نشاط التعلم. متكاملة وقابلة للتطوير والتحويل. تمثيل مدى واسعا من المعارف والمهارات المعرفية والمهارات العامة.

 

اختبار كفايات المعلمين


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التقويم الأكاديمي للعام الجامعي 1439/1440


مهارات تقويم الطالب الجامعي

مهارات تقويم الطالب الجامعي







معايير تصنيف الجامعات



الجهات الداعمة للابتكار في المملكة

تصميم مصفوفات وخرائط الأولويات البحثية

أنا أستطيع د.منى توكل

مونتاج مميز للطالبات

القياس والتقويم (مواقع عالمية)

مواقع مفيدة للاختبارات والمقاييس

مؤسسة بيروس للاختبارات والمقاييس

https://buros.org/

مركز البحوث التربوية

http://www.ercksa.org/).

القياس والتقويم

https://www.assess.com/

مؤسسة الاختبارات التربوية

https://www.ets.org/

إحصائية الموقع

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