Dr. Mona Tawakkul Elsayed

Associate Prof. of Mental Health and Special Education

Definitions for le

Definitions for learing disability


The most important thing in any field might be understands the concepts of this field; otherwise the efforts will be separate then the results reflect researchers’ opinions instead of having a strong base can any one build new structure on it to share others in the final building.

Learning disabilities as other concepts in education and humanities have numerous of concepts and thoughts. People may agree on some of these definitions of concepts and may not, but the worst is having no definitions.


1-1: Lack of Specific Identification Criteria:

“At present, the field continues to construct and use vague and ambiguous definitions that rely heavily on the exclusion of alternative diagnoses, such as the IDEA definition. An important part of the definition of LD is its exclusions: learning disabilities cannot be attributed primarily to mental retardation, emotional disturbance, cultural difference, or disadvantage. Thus, the concept of LD focuses on the notion of a discrepancy between a child's academic achievement and his or her apparent capacity to learn”. (Lyon)

Probably the most significant and persistent problem in the field is the lack of a precise definition and a theoretically based classification system that would allow:

1) The identification of different types of learning disabilities.

2) A means of recognizing distinctions and interrelationships between types of learning disabilities and other learning disorders such as mental retardation, attention deficit disorder, speech and language difficulties, and general academic underachievement.

3) Making benchmarks that can be use in building up new strategies of pedagogy and curriculum.


1-2: What are learning disabilities?

According to (NCLD), the term "learning disability" was coined in 1962 to describe individuals of at least average intelligence who seem capable of school success, but who have unexplained difficulty in acquiring basic academic skills. Since then experts have grappled with developing a definition that is educationally and clinically useful, but also embraces the wide range of characteristics found in those with learning disabilities. In 1975, with the passage of the Education for all Handicapped Children Act (Public Law 94-142), which mandated free and appropriate public education for students with handicapping conditions, a legal definition was developed. Professionals continue to struggle to create a tighter definition for this hidden handicap. They agree that individuals DO NOT have a learning disability when the learning problems and/or school failures are due primarily to:

·         Impaired vision.

·         Mental retardation.

·         Emotional difficulties.

·         Hearing loss.

·         Environmental factors.

·         Cultural differences.


G. Reid Lyon said that approximately 5% of all public school students are identified as having a learning disability. Learning disability is not a single disorder, but includes disabilities in any of seven areas related to reading, language, and mathematics. These separate types of learning disabilities frequently co-occur with one another and with social skill deficits and emotional or behavioral disorders. Most of the available information concerning learning disabilities relates to reading disabilities, and the majority of children with learning disabilities have their primary deficits in basic reading skills.

            Since our aim is focusing on “learning disability”, I’ll take care of the definitions of this term instead of the concept “disable”. From my search I found that the majority of organizations and groups did not pay more attentions of having specific definition of learning disability. They work under one or more of the standard definitions in the United States. 


1-3: Important Definitions of Learning Disabilities

1-3-1: The definition of:

The 1977 U.S. Office of Education:

The term "specific learning disability" means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations. The term includes such conditions as perceptual handicaps, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. The term does not include children who have learning disabilities which are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor handicaps, or mental retardation, or emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage. (United States Office of Education. (1977). Definition and criteria for defining students as learning disabled. Federal Register, 42:250, p. 65083. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.)


This definition is important because it is the basis for determining learning disabilities among school age children.


1-3-2: The definition of:

The Learning Disabilities Association of America

Specific Learning Disabilities is a chronic condition of presumed neurological origin which selectively interferes with the development, integration, and/or demonstration of verbal and/or nonverbal abilities. Specific Learning Disabilities exist as a distinct handicapping condition and varies in its manifestations and in degree of severity. Throughout life, the condition can affect self esteem, education, vocation, socialization, and/or daily living activities. (Association for Children with Learning Disabilities. (1986). ACLD Description: Specific Learning Disabilities. ACLD Newsbriefs, Sept./Oct.(166), 15. Note: The Association for Children with Learning Disabilities is now the Learning Disabilities Association of America.)


The Learning Disabilities Association of America's definition reflects the views of one of the largest advocacy groups for learning disabilities in the United States.



1-3-3: The definition of:

The Interagency Committee on Learning Disabilities

Learning disabilities is a generic term that refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders manifested by significant difficulties in acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, or mathematical abilities, or of social skills. These disorders are intrinsic to the individual and presumed to be due to central nervous system dysfunction. Even though a learning disability may occur concomitantly with other handicapping conditions (e.g., sensory impairment, mental retardation, social and emotional disturbance), with socioenvironmental influences (e.g., cultural differences, insufficient or inappropriate instruction, psychogenic factors), and especially attention deficit disorder, all of which may cause learning problems, a learning disability is not the direct result of those conditions or influences. (Interagency Committee on Learning Disabilities. (1987). Learning disabilities: A report to the U.S. Congress. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, p.222.)


This definition was acceptable to federal agencies on the committee, except for the US Department of Education.


1-3-4: The definition of:

The National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities

Learning disabilities is a general term that refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders manifested by significant difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, or mathematical abilities. These disorders are intrinsic to the individual, presumed to be due to central nervous system dsyfunction, and may occur across the life span. Problems in self-regulatory behaviors, social perception, and social interaction may exist with learning disabilities but do not by themselves constitute a learning disability. Although learning disabilities may occur concomitantly with other handicapping conditions (for example, sensory impairment, mental retardation, serious emotional disturbance) or with extrinsic influences (such as cultural differences, insufficient or inappropriate instruction), they are not the result of those conditions or influences. (National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities. (1988). Collective perspectives on issues affecting learning disabilities: Position papers and statements. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.)


The National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities' more recent LD definition was acceptable to most advocacy and professional organizations.


1-3-5: The definition of:

Rehabilitation Services Administration

A specific learning disability is a disorder in one or more of the central nervous system processes involved in perceiving, understanding, and/or using concepts through verbal (spoken or written) language or nonverbal means. This disorder manifests itself with a deficit in one or more of the following areas: attention, reasoning, processing, memory, communication, reading, writing, spelling, calculation, coordination, social competence, and emotional maturity. (Rehabilitation Services Administration. (1985, January 24). Program policy directive. Washington, DC: U.S. Office of Special Education and Rehabilitation Services.) National Adult Literacy and Learning Disabilities Center


This definition is one of few attempts to formulate a definition that focuses on work.

1-3-6: The definition of:

The National Institutes of Mental Health (NIMH)

They describes learning disabilities as follows:

Learning Disabilities (LD) is a disorder that affects people's ability to either interpret what they see and hear or to link information from different parts of the brain. These limitations can show up in many ways -- as specific difficulties with spoken and written language, coordination, self-control, or attention. Such difficulties extend to schoolwork and can impede learning to read or write, or to do math.

Learning disabilities can be lifelong conditions that, in some cases, affect many parts of a person's life: school or work, daily routines, family life, and sometimes even friendships and play. In some people, many overlapping learning disabilities may be apparent. Other people may have a single, isolated learning problem that has little impact on other areas of their lives. (1993) “www.ncld.org/ld/info_ld.html#stop2”


1-4: International confused:

            During my in search for definitions from countries around the world, I found something strange! Non of these countries – in general- has its own definition of learning disabilities, or at least non of them post it clearly in their web sites and resources. This includes Australia, the U.K, Canada, Arab Gulf Countries, Egypt, Lebanon, Jordan and India. The best of those who refer to the U.S. or United Nations definitions.


1-5: International view:

In other countries there are different view of this issue, most of it are based on the definitions of disability it self, or the specific situation of learning disability. Defining disability is difficult because there are dozens of definitions each with a purpose to it. These range from the very narrow to the very broad, from the medical to the social, from the cultural to the local, from the one intended to integrate them in society to the one for exclusion and segregation.

People are labeled as disabled or handicapped because they look different from the rest of the society on account of their appearance, behavior or capacity to learn. This fact seems to be international, regardless of the more or less acceptance of it.


1-5-1: Definition from India:

1-5-2: The WHO Manual gives the following definitions:

Impairment: An impairment is any loss or abnormality of psychological, physiological or anatomical structure or function.

Disability: A disability is any restriction or lack (resulting from an impairment) of ability to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being.

Handicap: A handicap is a disadvantage for a given individual, resulting from an impairment or disability, that limits or prevents the fulfillment of a role that is normal (depending on age, sex and social and cultural factors) for that individual.

The ILO defines a disabled person as an individual whose prospects of securing, retaining and advancing in suitable employment are substantially reduced as a result of a duly recognised physical or mental impairment. (Baquer)


1-5-3: Another set of definitions has been provided for in the Rehabilitation Council of India Act, 1992. These are as follows:

Hearing handicap means deafness with hearing impairment of 70 decibels and above in the better ear or total loss of hearing in both ears.

Locomotor disability means a person’s inability to execute distinctive activities associated with moving, both himself and objects, from place to place, and such inability resulting from affliction of either bones, joints, muscles or nerves.

Mental retardation means a condition of arrested or incomplete development of mind of a person which is specially characterised by sub-normality of intelligence.

Visually handicapped means a person who suffers from any of the following conditions, namely :

A.    total absence of sight; or

B.     visual acuity not exceeding 6/60 or 20/200 (snellen) in the better eye with the correcting lenses; or

C.     limitation of the field of vision subtending an angle of degree 20 or worse.


1-5-4: In his book, Ali Baquer from India gives us more definitions, he relates to Helander that the simplest and maybe the initial definition of a disabled person appears to be the following:

"A person who in his/her society is regarded as disabled, because of a difference in appearances and/or behaviour."

In most instances, a disabled person has functional limitations and/or activity restrictions. A ‘functional limitation’ disability may be defined as ‘specific reductions in bodily functions that are described at the level of the person’.

‘Activity restriction’ disability may be defined as ‘specific reductions in daily activities that are described at the level of the person’.

Helander’s definition: A disabled person is the one who in his or her society is regarded or officially recognised as such, because of a difference in appearance and/or behaviour, in combination with a functional limitation or an activity restriction.

In the definition given by the Planning Commission of India, a disabled person means a person who is:

A.    blind;

B.     deaf;

C.     having orthopaedic disability; or

D.    having neurological disorder;

E.     mentally retarded

The definition includes ‘any person who is unable to ensure himself/herself, wholly or partly, the necessities of a normal individual or social life including work, as a result of deficiency in his/her physical or mental capability’.

Blind: A person shall be deemed to be blind if he/she suffers from either of the following conditions:

A.    total absence of sight;

B.     limitation of the field of vision subtending an angle of 20 degrees or worse.

Deaf: A person shall be deemed to be deaf if he/she has lost 60 decibels or more in the better ear in the conversational range of frequencies.

Orthopaedic or Neurological Disorder: A person shall be deemed to be orthopaedically or neurologically disabled if he/she is having disability of bones, joints or muscles leading to substantial restriction of the movement of the limbs or if he has any form of Cerebral palsy.

Mental Retardation: Mental retardation refers to sub-average general intellectual functioning which originates during the development period.


1-5-5: In 1986, The Ministry of Welfare, Government of India issued orders prescribing a standard set of definitions along with standard tests for the purposes of certification of disability. These definitions (whose suitability in the light of new legal safeguards must be carefully examined) were adopted and used. For major categories of disability the definitions are as follows:

Visually handicapped:

The blind are those who suffer from either of the following conditions :

A.    total absence of sight;

B.     visual acuity not exceeding 6/60 or 20/200 (snellen) in the better eye with correcting lenses.

C.     limitation of the field of vision surrounding an angle of degree 20 or worse.

The locomotor handicapped are those who have restriction in the activity of arms, limbs or other parts of the body on account of damage to the bones, muscles or nerves. Persons suffering from more than 40 per cent disability would be entitled to facilities/concessions provided by Central/State governments.

Hearing Handicapped:

The deaf are those in whom the sense of hearing is non-functional for ordinary purposes in life. They do not hear/understand sound at all even with amplified speech. The cases included in this category will be those having hearing loss of more than 70 decibels in the better ear (profound impairment) or total loss of hearing in both ears.

Mental Retardation:

Mental retardation means subaverage general intellectual functioning associated with mal-adaptive behaviour, occurring in the developmental period. Mental retardation is divisible into the following four categories -

1.      Mild retardation IQ - 50 - 70

2.      Moderate retardation IQ - 35 - 49

3.      Severe retardation IQ - 20 - 34

4.      Profound retardation IQ under 20

1-5-6: In the new Law–Persons with Disabilities (Equal opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act, 1995, unless the context otherwise requires,

Disability means:

A.    Blindness

B.     Low vision

C.     Leprosy cured

D.    Hearing impairment

E.     Mental retardation

F.      Mental illness

‘Blindness’ refers to a condition where a person suffers from any of the following conditions, namely:

A.    total absence of sight; or

B.     visual acuity not exceeding 6/60 or 20/200 (snellen) in the better eye with correcting lenses; or

C.     limitation of the field of vision subtending an angle of 20 degrees or worse.

‘Cerebral Palsy’ means a group of non-progressive conditions of a person characterised by abnormal motor control posture resulting from brain insult or injuries occurring in the pre-natal, peri- natal or infant period of development.

‘Hearing impairment’ means loss of sixty decibels or more in the better ear in the conversational range of frequencies.

‘Leprosy cured person’ means any person who has been cured of leprosy but is suffering from:

A.    loss of sensation in hands or feet as well as loss of sensation and paresis in the eye and eye-lid but with no manifest deformity;

B.     manifest deformity and paresis but having sufficient mobility in their hands and feet to enable them to engage in normal economic activity ;

C.     extreme physical deformity as well as advanced age which prevents him from undertaking any gainful occupation, and the expression ‘leprosy cured’ shall be construed accordingly.

‘Locomotor disability’ means disability of the bones, joints or muscles leading to substantial restriction of the movement of the limbs or any form of cerebral palsy.

‘Mental illness’ means any mental disorder other than mental retardation.

‘Mental retardation’ means a condition of arrested or incomplete development of mind of a person which is specially characterised by subnormality of intelligence.

‘Person with disability’ means a person suffering from not less than forty per cent of any disability as certified by a medical authority.

‘Person with low vision’ means a person with impairment of visual functioning even after treatment or standard refractive correction but who uses or is potentially capable of using vision for the planning or execution of appropriate assistive device.


1-6: The definition of disability:

1-6-1: United Nations:

According to the Standard rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities, United Nations, 1994 the term ‘disability’ summarizes a great number of different functional limitations occurring in any population in any country of the world. People may be disabled by physical, intellectual or sensory impairment, medical conditions or mental illness.

The term ‘handicap’ means the loss or limitation of opportunities to take part in the life of the community on an equal level with others. It describes the encounter between the persons with a disability and the environment. The purpose of this term is to emphasize the focus on the shortcomings in the environment and in many organized activities in society, e.g., information, communication and education, which prevent persons with disabilities from participating on equal terms.


1-6-2: The United States:

Americans with Disabilities Act 1990 (ADA) an classifies an individual as disabled if his/her physical or mental impairment "substantially limits one or more of the major life activities".

1-6-3: Australia:

In the ‘Disability Discrimination Act, 1992’ of Australia, ‘disability’ in relation to a person, means -

a.       total or partial loss of the person’s bodily or mental functions; or

b.      total or partial loss of a part of the body; or

c.       the presence in the body of organisms capable of causing disease or illness; or

d.      the presence in the body of organisms causing disease or illness; or

e.       the malfunction, malformation or disfigurement of a part of the person’s body; or

f.       a disorder or malfunction that results in the person learning differently from a person without the disorder or malfunction; or

g.      a disorder, illness or disease that affects a person’s thought processes, perception of reality, emotions or judgement or that results in disturbed behavior and includes a disability that :

      A. presently exists; or

      B. previously existed but no longer exists; or

      C. may exist in the future; or

      D. is imputed to a person.


1-6-4: The British Government:

According to the Disability Discrimination Act, 1995 of the British Government, a person has a disability for the purposes of this Act if he has a physical or mental impairment, which has a substantial and long-term adverse effect on his ability to carry out normal day-to-day activities.

In order to apply durability test, the British Act uses three different terms: loss of faculty, disability and disablement. These are meant to be separate concepts.


1-6-5: Finally, disable people:

In their web site, a group of disables people in England made this comments:

“We have learning difficulties.

In the past we used to be called labels like mentally handicapped, mentally retarded, intellectually handicapped, or mentally subnormal.

We didn't like these labels as they kept us down. We choose to use 'learning difficulties' ourselves. It is a label which doesn't hurt us as much as those above.

Jars should be labeled not people! “



As we see the focuses was on the disability itself instead of the learning disabilities. This is common in other countries too; on the other hand some countries relate the definition to United Nations or the U.S definition


1-7: What are some common signs of learning disabilities?


Parents are often the first to notice that "something doesn't seem right." If parents, teachers, and other professionals discover a child's learning disability early and provide the right kind of help, it can give the child a chance to develop skills needed to lead a successful and productive life. “A recent National Institutes of Health study showed that 67% of young students who were at risk for reading difficulties became average or above average readers after receiving help in the early grades.” (www.ldonline.org/ccldinfo/index.html). If we as teachers and parents are aware of the common signs of learning disabilities, we will be able to recognize potential problems early.

In (Learning disabilities information, strategies & resources), a book published by The Coordinated Campaign for Learning Disabilities (CCLD) in 1998, there is a checklist of characteristics that may point to a learning disability. Most people will, from time to time, see one or more of these warning signs in their children. This is normal, but if this happen for long time or if it several characteristics, then this may give a sign that this person has learning disability.


1-8: Checklist of characteristics that may point to a learning disability

1-8-1: Checklist for young students:

            (Seldin, 1998) gives Checklist of characteristics of young learning disabled students based on three areas:

Characteristics Related to General Functioning and Social-Emotional Development:

·         Immature emotionally and socially.

·         "Spacey": Look of disorientation.

·         Can't make choices.

·         Can't stay with an activity.

·         Distractible. Impulsive.

·         Knows rules but does not apply.

·         Labile emotions; excessive silliness;
catastrophic reactions; angry; shy or withdrawn.

·         Shifts blame?

·         Academic skills very slow in developing.

·         Strong discrepancies in skills and knowledge.

·         Socially off-base. Unaccepted by group.

·         Poor memory.

·         Easily frustrated. Won't take risks.

·         Doesn't take pride in work or accept compliments.

·         Excessively rigid: cannot abide change.

·         Artistic. Sensitive. Mechanically inclined.

·         Non-verbal reasoning is highly developed.


Characteristics Related to Speech - Language Development:

·         Avoids talking or focuses mainly on adults.

·         Uses pat phrases to communicate.

·         Excellent vocabulary but poor production.

·         Hesitates constantly, uses filler words, stammers.

·         Makes off-topic comments? Raises hand but has no words.

·         Wants to tell but cannot retrieve words.

·         Tells stories in random order without references.

·         Mishears or doesn't hear.

·         Articulation weak with substitutions of sounds.

·         Uses incomplete sentences. Mumbles. Slurs.

·         Poor pragmatic: eye contact, turn-taking.

·         Loses focus in group activities.

·         Hypervigilant. Watches others to see what to do.

·         Word order or syllable order frequently mixed.

·         Cannot rhyme.

·         Cannot segment sounds in words, or blend them together to make words.


Characteristics Related to Sensory - Motor Development:

·         Avoids tasks. Coloring, drawing, cutting.

·         Excessively physical. Touching, pushing, wrestling.

·         Generally not upright. Leaning, lying, drooping.

·         Gets into trouble when he/she has free-time or space.

·         Bumps into things and people without awareness.

·         Lasting egocentricity.

·         Avoids or is uncomfortable on play equipment.

·         Falls often and easily. Slides out of chairs.

·         Large and fine motor skills immature.

·         Can't blow nose or tie shoes.

·         Very disorganized. Can't get ready. Clean up.

·         Constantly losing things. Can't remember how to go, where to put things. What it's time for.

·         Pencil grip awkward. Puzzles challenging.

·         Fussy eater. Messy eater.

·         Over or under reacts to stimuli. Treats a light touch as he/she does a punch. Frightened by loud noises. Overwhelmed by strong smells and bright lights.


1-8-2: Checklist for schools stages:



·         Speaks later than most children

·         Pronunciation problems

·         Slow vocabulary growth, often unable to find the right word

·         Difficulty rhyming words

·         Trouble learning numbers, alphabet, days of the week, colors, shapes

·         Extremely restless and easily distracted

·         Trouble interacting with peers

·         Difficulty following directions or routines

·         Fine motor skills slow to develop


Grades K-4

·         Slow to learn the connection between letters and sounds

·         Confuses basic words (run, eat, want)

·         Makes consistent reading and spelling errors including letter reversals (b/d), inversions (m/w), transpositions (felt/left), and substitutions (house/home)

·         Transposes number sequences and confuses arithmetic signs (+, -, x, /, =)

·         Slow to remember facts

·         Slow to learn new skills, relies heavily on memorization

·         Impulsive, difficulty planning

·         Unstable pencil grip

·         Trouble learning about time

·         Poor coordination, unaware of physical surroundings, prone to accidents


Grades 5-8

·         Reverses letter sequences (soiled/solid, left/felt)

·         Slow to learn prefixes, suffixes, root words, and other spelling strategies

·         Avoids reading aloud

·         Trouble with word problems

·         Difficulty with handwriting

·         Awkward, fist-like, or tight pencil grip

·         Avoids writing compositions

·         Slow or poor recall of facts

·         Difficulty making friends

·         Trouble understanding body language and facial expressions


High School Students and Adults

·         Continues to spell incorrectly, frequently spells the same word differently in a single piece of writing

·         Avoids reading and writing tasks

·         Trouble summarizing

·         Trouble with open-ended questions on tests

·         Weak memory skills

·         Difficulty adjusting to new settings

·         Works slowly

·         Poor grasp of abstract concepts

·         Either pays too little attention to details or focuses on them too much

·         Misreads information



1-8-3: Other checklist:

NCLD gives a view of what criteria are used to decide whether or not a person has a learning disability? They said:

Professionals, through interviews, observation and multi-disciplinary assessment, determine if an individual meets the following criteria for having a learning disability:

·         Has an average or above average intelligence.

·         Exhibits unexpected discrepancy between potential and actual achievement.

Performs poorly because of difficulty in one or more of the following areas:

Listening, Speaking, Reading, Written expression, Mathematics, Reasoning.


1-8-4: Also NCLD gives a checklist Adapted from Melvin D. Levine, M.D., 1994.

What to look for: Some first signs of trouble of Learning Disabilities


Lower Grades

Middle Grades

Upper Grades


Pronunciation problems. Slow vocabulary growth. Lack of interest in story telling.

Delayed decoding abilities for reading. Trouble following directions. Poor spelling

Poor reading comprehension. Lack of verbal participation in class. Trouble with word problems

Weak grasp of explanations. Foreign language problems. Poor written expression. Trouble summarizing.


Trouble learning numbers, alphabet days of week, etc. Poor memory for routines

Slow recall of facts. Organizational problems. Slow acquisition of new skills. Poor spelling.

Slow or poor recall of math facts. Failure of automatic recall.

Trouble studying for tests. Weak cumulative memory. Slow work pace.


Trouble sitting still. Extreme restlessness. Lack of persistence at tasks.

Impulsivity, lack of planning, Careless errors. Distractibility.

Inconsistency. Poor self-monitoring. Poor ability to discern relevant detail.

Memory problems due to weak attention. Mental fatigue.


Trouble learning self-help skills (eg. tying shoe laces). Clumsiness. Reluctance to draw or trace.

Unstable pencil grip. Trouble with letter formation.

Fist-like or tight pencil grip. Illegible, slow or inconsistent writing. Reluctance to write.

Lessening relevance of fine motor skills.


Trouble learning left from right (possible visual spatial confusion). Trouble interacting (weak social skills).

Trouble learning about time (temporal sequential disorganization). Poor grasp of math concepts.

Poor learning strategies. Disorganization in time or space. Peer rejection.

Poor grasp of abstract concepts. Failure to elaborate. Trouble taking tests, multiple choice (eg. SAT's).





1-9: Researches founds:

Here some of the efforts in learning disabilities fields, based on the Research Domain, Findings and Research Group:


Major Findings from Research Programs Supported by the
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

Research Domain


Research Group

Definition of learning disabilities

Definitions that measure the discrepancy between IQ and achievement do not adequately identify learning disabilities, particularly in the area of basic reading skills.


Reading processes

Disabled readers with and without an IQ-achievement discrepancy show similar information processing, genetic, and neurophysiological profiles. This indicates that the existence of a discrepancy is not a valid indicator of disabilities in basic reading skills.

Bowman Gray

Reading Processes

Epidemiological studies indicate that as many females as males manifest dyslexia; however, schools identify three to four times more boys than girls.

Bowman Gray

Reading Processes

Reading disabilities reflect a persistent deficit rather than a developmental lag. Longitudinal studies show that, of those children who are reading disabled in the third grade, approx. 74% continue to read significantly below grade level in the ninth grade.


Reading Processes

Children with reading disability differ from one another and from other readers along a continuous distribution. They do not aggregate together to form a distinct "hump" separate from the normal distribution.

Bowman Gray

Reading Processes

The ability to read and comprehend depends upon rapid and automatic recognition and decoding of single words. Slow and inaccurate decoding are the best predictors of deficits in reading comprehension.

Bowman Gray
Johns Hopkins

Reading Processes

The ability to decode single words accurately and fluently is dependent upon the ability to segment words and syllables into phonemes. Deficits in phonological awareness reflect the core deficit in dyslexia.

Bowman Gray
Johns Hopkins

Reading Processes

The best predictor of reading ability from kindergarten and first-grade performance is phoneme segmentation ability

Bowman Gray


A precise classification of disorders of attention is not yet available; however, operational definitions are emerging.




Approximately 15% of students with reading disability also have a disorder of attention. Approximately 35% of students with disorders of attention also have reading disability. However, the two disorders are distinct and separable.

Bowman Gray


Disorders of attention exacerbate the severity of reading disability

Bowman Gray


There is strong evidence for a genetic basis for reading disabilities, with deficits in phonological awareness reflecting the greatest degree of heritability

Bowman Gray


Regional blood studies indicate that deficient word recognition skills are associated with less than normal activation in the occiptal and prefrontal regions of the cortex.



PET studies indicate that dyslexic adults have greater than normal activation in the occipital and prefrontal regions of the cortex.



Disabled readers do not readily acquire the alphabetic code because of deficits in phonological processing. Thus, disabled readers must be provided hightly structures programs that explicitly teach application of phonological rules to print.

Bowman Gray


Longitudinal data indicate that systematic phonics instruction results in more favorable outcomes for disabled readers than does a context-emphasis (whole language) approach.

Bowman Gray

(Lyon 1996)


1-10: Glossary of educational terms relate to learning disabilities:

Aphasia: A complete inability to use language to communicate effectively.

(This communication disorder is not the result of a physical impairment such as damage to the vocal cords or larynx.) (See Dysphasia.)

Apraxia: Complete inability to make purposeful motor movements when there is no paralysis. (See Dyspraxia.)

Associative Skills: The ability to relate a new concept or new material to previously mastered material. For example: A child seeing the word “cat” must associate the letters that make up this word with the furry animal that purrs.

Ataxia: An inability to coordinate muscles. (See Dystaxia.)

Auditory Discrimination: The ability to hear the difference between sounds. For example: “pig” and “peg.” 

Auditory Memory: Remembering what is heard. For example: A teacher tells the class to get out their science books, turn to page 145 and do problems 1-6. The student is expected to remember all three directions. If a child is unable to remember this information, he may have auditory memory deficits.

Auditory Perception and Processing Skills: The ability to recognize and interpret things that are heard. This term includes auditory discrimination, auditory memory, auditory sequencing, and figure-ground discrimination

Auditory Sequencing: Remembering the proper sequence in which things are heard. For example: 12435 and not 12345.

Behavior Modification: A technique used to change a child behavior by setting up a system of positive rewards and/or negative consequences. The positive rewards might consist of food, money, or tokens, while the negative consequences might consist of punishment or denial of privileges.

Blending: The ability to “sound out” and put together separate sounds that make up a word. For example: A child would blend the “c” sound, and the “t” sound to form the word “cat”.

Closure: The act of bringing an experience or a concept to a conclusion. When everything is stated and the child understands and has integrated the information into his store of knowledge, then closure has been achieved. Some material (such as grammar or syntax) may require months or even years before a child fully understands the concepts involved and is able to achieve closure.

Convergence: The ability of both eyes to coordinate their movement and focus on an object or a written word.

Decoding: The basic process of responding to auditory or visual symbols. An example of decoding is reading words aloud; that is, using the knowledge of the sound that each letter makes to figure out how to pronounce a word.

Differential Diagnosis: A relatively comprehensive testing procedure designed to pinpoint areas of strength and weakness and, where possible to locate the exact cause of the child’s learning difficulties.

Directionality: Being aware there is a right and left side of the body and being able to relate this internal awareness to external objects. Children with directionality problems will frequently reverse letters and/or numbers (“b” for “d”) because they cannot perceive that the letters are pointed to the right or to the left.

Discrimination Skills: Skills that help a person tell the difference between two or more things. (See Auditory and Visual Discrimination.)

Dyslexia: Generally, a visual perception problem commonly characterized by letter and word reversals (“p”/ “q” or “saw”/ “was”) Dyslexic children frequently have directionality problems (right/left confusion) and visual tracking problems (difficulty seeing letters and words accurately when reading). Sometimes the word “dyslexia” is used to describe a reading problem.

Dysphasia: Difficulty in using language to communicate which is not the result of a physical impairment such as damaged vocal cords or larynx.

For example: A child may have difficulty finding appropriate word to complete a sentence or a thought even though the word is part of his everyday vocabulary. (Aphasia is more severe)

Dyspraxia: Great difficulty in making purposeful motor movements when there is no paralysis. For example: A child playing hopscotch may remain poised on one square trying to make his muscles work correctly in order to hop to the next square. Less severe than apraxia.

Dystaxia: Difficulty in coordinating muscles. The condition is less severe than ataxia.

Encoding: The process of writing or speaking by retrieving the written and spoken symbols (or words) from memory and using those symbols to express oneself.

Far Point Deficits: Difficulty copying or reading something in the distance. For example: Difficulty copying from the blackboard.

Figure-Ground Deficits: Difficulty in distinguishing a specific shape or sound from the background. For example: A child may be unable to screen out distractions and background noises when trying to listen to the teacher talking.

Fine-Motor: Referring to the specialized muscles in the hands. These muscles develop more slowly tan the large skeletal muscles and are needed specifically for good handwriting.

Gross-Motor: Referring to the large skeletal muscles used for crawling, walking, lifting, balancing, etc.

Hard Neurological Signs: Specific measurable deviations in brain functioning that usually indicate organic brain damage. Hard signs are usually revealed by an EEG exam that is performed by a neurologist.

Kinesthetic Techniques: Methods of teaching reading that involve movement of the fingers, arms, or whole body. Children who are taught by this method receive input from the muscles which is intended to reinforce the association of the visual symbol with its sound. For example: A child learning the letter “b” might trace over a “b” with his fingers on sandpaper, trace a giant “b” in the air, or form a “b” with his whole body.

Language disabilities: difficulty expressing oneself in either written or spoken form.  For example: A child who knows the answer to a question but has trouble finding the words to express it may have language disability. (See Encoding.)

Laterality: Being aware of and being able to use both sides of the body.

Linguistic Approach: A teaching method that emphasizes learning to read whole words and word families. For example: if the child can read “dog” then he should be able to read “log.”

Math Skills: The ability to use numbers effectively to solve problems. Math skills involve 1) the ability to do basic computations (adding, subtracting, multiplying, dividing). 2) the ability to apply those skills to every day situations (word problems). 3) the ability to understand the mathematical concepts involved in the computations (adding mixed fractions).

Mental Retardation: A condition in which a child’s IQ is determined to be below 70 and where the child has deficits in adaptive behavior, motor coordination, communication, self-help, and/or socialization skills.

Mid-Line: An imaginary vertical line which divides the right and left sides of the body. The left half of the brain controls the right side of body, and the right half of the brain controls the left half. Skipping, or drawing a line from the left side of a paper to the right side involves crossing the mid-line. Difficulty crossing the mid-line (for example: difficulty coordinating both sides of the body) can be a symptom of a perceptual or neurological problem.

Minimal Brain Dysfunction (M.B.D.): A medical term applied to children who show “soft” neurological symptoms of perceptual deficiency but who show no organic evidence of brain damage as measured by an EEG. (See Perceptual Dysfunction.)

Motor-Coordination: The ability to perform with dexterity tasks involving movement of the body, such as walking or swimming. Specific components of coordination include: balance, synchronized upper-lower movement, fine-motor skills, eye-hand coordination, and depth perception.

Motor Planning: Thinking through movements that the body must make to perform a task before attempting the action. An example of basic motor planning is a child thinking of how to move his muscles in order to jump over a rope. More complex motor planning might involve looking at a set of instructions for building something and then purposefully planning how to move one’s hands to follow directions.

Motor Skills: Skills which involve the coordinated movement of the body, such as jumping, balancing, or drawing. (See Gross-Motor and Fine-Motor)

Near Point Deficits: Difficulty copying or reading something that is close at hand. For example: Copying from a book on the desk.

Neurological Disorders: A condition resulting from damage to the brain or central nervous system. The damage may be so slight that there are no observable symptoms or there may be more serious damage that can be measured by neurological tests. (See Soft Neurological Signs and Hard)

Neurological Impress Method: A reading method in which the teacher and student read out loud simultaneously at in fairly rapid pace while the student follows the printed word with his finger. The child has input from the printed page, and movement of his finger and the sound of the two voices reading help him master the words.

Perceptual Decoding: See Decoding.

Perceptual Learning Disabilities: An inability to process sensory data efficiently resulting in specific learning problems such as letter reversals, spelling problems, and reading comprehension problems.

Perceptual-Motor Activities/Perceptual-Motor training: Activities designed to train the child to process information coming from the senses efficiently and to make appropriate responses to that sensory information. For example: A physical activity which requires children to follow a series of command strains them to listen carefully to the directions and remember what was said.

Perceptual Processing: The instantaneous sorting and analysis by the brain of sensory data from the five senses and association of this data with past sensory experiences. For example: A child sees a “b”, recognizes it, associates it with the letter “b” and says, “This is a ‘b.’ ”

Phonics Approach: A method of teaching reading which emphasizes learning the sound of each letter and then blending the sounds together to say words. To read “hen,” the child would first say the sounds “h,” “e,” and “n,” then put them together to say “hen.”

Reading Comprehension: The ability to understand and remember what one has read.

Self-Concept: A person’s view of himself. Children who have good self-concepts see themselves as generally able to succeed in many areas. Children who have a poor self-concept often perceive themselves as unpopular or inadequate.

Sensory Impairment: Physical damage to one of the sensory receptors (for example: the eyes) resulting in partial or complete loss of the use of that sensory receptor. Blindness and hearing loss are two examples of sensory impairments.

Sensory-Motor Integration/Sensory Integration Therapy: A procedure designed for children with relatively severe perceptual problems, in which perceptual processing skills are enhanced by means of activities and exercise which stress central nervous system development. This procedure is usually implemented by trained occupational therapists.

Sight-Word Approach/Sight-Word Recognition: In reading, learning to recognize words by memorization. There are many words, such as “thought,” which do not follow phonic rules and which must be learned “by sigh.”

Soft Neurological Signs: Deficits in gross-motor and fine-motor coordination balance and concentration which are associated with minimal brain dysfunction and perceptual learning disabilities. “Soft signs” involves less severe neurological symptoms and can be distinguished from “hard signs” which generally indicate a neurological disorder involving organic brain damage.

Sound/Letter/Word Retrieval: In reading, the ability to remember a previously learned sound, letter, or word.

Spatial Judgment/Spatial Concepts/Spatial Skills/Spatial Relationships: things The awareness of one’s body in space and its relationship to other things around it. Judging distance, size, and location all involve spatial skills. A child may have difficulty with prepositions (such as “above,” “next to,” 'and "behind”) because he has difficulty understanding spatial concepts.

Tracking: See Visual Tracking.

Visual Decoding Skills: See Decoding.

Visual Discrimination: The ability to tell the difference between things one sees (for example: differentiating “b” and “d”). Poor visual discrimination is frequently responsible for poor reading skills.

Visual Memory: Remembering what one has seen. For example: A child with poor visual memory who is shown a series of numbers will have difficulty repeating the numbers from memory.

Visual-Motor Skills/Visual-Motor Integration: Skills that involve making a motor response (speaking, writing, or moving) to a visual stimulus. A child copying or reading from the blackboard or following written directions is using visual-motor skills.

Visual Perception/Visual Processing Skills: The ability to recognize and interpret the things one sees. This includes figure-ground discrimination, visual discrimination, visual memory, and visual sequencing. For example: Finding matching pictures or letters.

Visual Sequencing: Process of remembering and then placing what one has seen in the correct order. For example: When copying the word “milk” from the board, a child with poor visual sequencing skills might remember all the letters but put them in the wrong order and write “mlik.”

Visual Tracking Problem: Difficult reading with precision the letters and words which make up printed text. Typically, children with visual tracking problems will confuse “b” and “d” a (static tracking problem) and/or will omit syllables, mispronounce words, and drop word endings (a kinetic tracking problem). Children with visual tracking problems often lose their place when reading and may skip words, phrases, or entire lines.

Word Attack Skills: Skills that help a child to pronounce and understand words that are read. These skills primarily involve phonics, but also include recognizing context clues (how was the word used in the sentence) and structural clues (prefixes, suffixes, syllables). 

(Greene 1987, p 249-300)









1-11: Glossary of Testing Terms relate to learning disabilities:

Ability Test: A test designed to measure what a person can do.

Achievement Test: A test designed to measure how much a person has learned after instruction in a specific content area. Generally, these tests are standardized and normed.

Aptitude: An ability, capacity, or talent in a particular area such as music or mathematics. Aptitude is a specialized facility to learn or understand a particular skill.

Criterion-Referenced Test: A test, usually designed by a teacher or publisher, which measures the student’s mastery of a specific subject he has studied. The scores are not standardized but can provide the teacher with useful information about what the child has and has not learned.

Diagnostic Test: A test that pinpoints a student’s strength and weaknesses. The results are generally used in planning specific strategies designed to correct the weaknesses.

Grade Equivalent: A statistical ranking of a child’s performance based on his raw score which compares the child’s performance level to the score which could be expected statistically from an average child at that same year and month in school. This score is expressed in terms of years and months, (9 months making up each school year). Example: a score of 2.8 would mean that the student’s score is the same as an average child in second grade, eighth month.

Intelligence Quotient (IQ): An index designed to predict academic success. The IQ test compares a person’s intelligence (or learning potential) with that of others the same age. This comparison yields a derived score called IQ. The score does not measure creativity, talent, or motivation. Any IQ score between 85 and 115 is considered to be in the average range. A score between 70 and 85 is low average, while 115 to 130 is high average. A score below 70 indicates possible mental retardation and a score above 130 indicates possible giftedness. These scores may vary slightly depending on the IQ test that is administered and the scores can be influenced by emotional, cultural, and perceptual factors.

Mastery Test: See Criterion-Referenced Test.

Mean Score: The mathematical average of all students’ test scores in a particular test.

Mental Age: A score on a mental abilities test which ranks the performance level of a child in relation to the score which could be expected statistically from a child at same age. The mental age score is used distinguish between a child’s chronological age and his actual performance. Example: If a child’s chronological age is 10-6 (10 years, 6 months) and his mental age is 11-4, then his performance on the test is comparable to the average performance of children whose chronological mental age 11 years, 4 months. The child’s mental age would thus be “above average.”

Norms: A frame of reference for a standardized test which shows the actual performance on the test by pupils of specific ages and grades. Through the use of norms, the score of an individual student can be compared to the scores of other students of a similar age or grade across the country.

Percentile: A score which states a student’s relative position within a defined group by ranking all students who have taken a particular test.

Personality Test: A test that measures character traits and the way a person acts rather than specific knowledge or intelligence.

Power Test: An untimed test with items usually arranged in order of difficulty that determines a student’s level of performance in a particular subject area.

Raw Score: The total number of correct answers on a test.

Readiness Test: A test that measures a student’s maturity or mastery of prerequisite skills which are needed before going on to a new content area. This kind of test is typically used in preschool or kindergarten to determine whether the child is academically and developmentally prepared to function effectively at the next academic level.

Reliability: How well a test consistently produces the same results.

Scaled Score: A ranking system, chosen by the publisher of the test, which is derived from the raw scores obtained on that test. A different scale is established for each test. For example, one test could have a scale from 1 to 19 while another might have a scale from 1 to 70. In order to interpret a scaled score, you must know the mean score and the standard deviation for that test.

Standard Deviation: A measure of how much one student’s score varies from the mean score of all the students taking the test.

Standard Score: A statistical ranking, with respect to the performance of a large sample of students of the same age and/or grade level, of a child’s performance on a standardized test, based on the raw score he achieved on the test.

Standardized Test: A test that has specific and uniform instructions for administering timing and scoring. It is given to large numbers of children at one time and statistically compares one student’s performance with that of a large sample of students of the same age and/or grade level. norms established by standardization process are used by teachers and school psychologists to determine a child’s relative level of performance or achievement.

Stanine: A statistical ranking of a child’s performance on a standardized test on a scale of 1 through 9. A mean score is 5 and any stanine score from 3 to 7 is generally considered to reflect average performance. Frequently, the results on a standardized test will be given by means of stanine score and a percentile score. The higher the stanine score, the higher the percentile score will be.

Survey Test: Test which measures general achievement in an academic area .It is not as comprehensive or specific as a criterion-referenced test.

Validity: The accuracy with which a test measures what it has been designed to measure.

(Greene 1987, p 301 – 303)
















1-12: Conclusions of chapter one:

It is true that if we know the exact problem, we might be able to solve it. The problem accrues when we don’t know exactly our issue. Each one has own view of this issue based on his interests and backgrounds.

From the previous concepts and understanding of disabilities and its relate of education we can state some points as a conclusion of what could we get from the definitions of learning disabilities.

Having the term “learning disabilities” makes little sense for scientific purposes, clinical purposes, or school policy purposes. Instead, the field must grasp with the clear need to address each type of learning disability individually to arrive at clear definitional statements and a coherent understanding of etiology, developmental course, identification, prevention, and treatment.

In the U.S there are few definitions of learning disability. These definitions are based on educational organizations’ interests, field or philosophy. Some of these definitions became worldwide use. In the U.K, Australia, and some of Middle East countries there are educational organizations and web sites refer to these definitions.

On the other hand, there are lots of educational ministries, organizations, associations and web sites did not talk about the definition of learning disability. Some of them deal with it as physical disability only.

Some countries deal with physical disability only because they are under developing countries with low economic level, so they cannot spread their efforts to cover all learning disabilities kinds. On the other hand, some countries do not have enough experts in learning disability fields, or they just deal with this new issue, so it can be as new field in educators’ interests. 

In conclusion, the whole view of learning disabilities is new even in developing countries. Except experts, the majority of people cannot imagine who learning disabilities are spread.

Chapter two

Extent of learning disability


2-1: Results of absence of clear definition for learning disability:

Lyon, 1996 states that the real prevalence of learning disabilities is subject to much dispute because of the lack of an agreed-upon definition of learning disabilities and objective diagnostic criteria. Some have argued that the currently recognized 5% prevalence rate is excessive and is based on vague definitions, leading to inaccurate identification.

On the other hand, research efforts to identify objective early indicators of learning disabilities in basic reading skills have concluded that virtually all children scoring below the 25th percentile on standardized reading tests can meet the criteria for having a reading disorder. While less is known about learning disabilities in written expression, researchers estimate its true prevalence at between 8% and 15% of the school population. Research also indicates that approximately 6% of the school population has difficulties in mathematics which cannot be attributed to low intelligence, sensory deficits, or economic deprivation. (Lyon, 1996)


2-2: Extent of disability in the United States:

According to the U.S. Department of Education, more than 1 in 6 children (17.5%) will encounter a problem learning to read during the first three years in school. These estimates are consistent with data from ongoing studies at the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD).

The U.S. Department of Education estimates indicates that 5% of school-aged children in public schools currently receive special education services as students with learning disabilities. These students comprised 51% of the entire identified special education population. This percentage does not take into consideration the weakness.

Here we have a statistical extent of learning disabilities from U.D Department of Education.

2-3: Extent of disability in Saudi Arabia:

In Saudi there are two kind of statistical studies, the first one is based on the old definition of disability as handicapped, the second one is new way of dealing with learning disabilities with strict definitions. These definitions are the ones that use in the United States, but more strictly, so the statistical result may contain those who have not any kind of learning disabilities.


Based on the first statistical studies:

According to D. Altoraiqee study, there are 493.605 handicapped, their percentage to the total is 3.73 %. From these disabilities:

Physical disabilities: 33.6 % (male 55.8%, female 44.2 %)

Vision disabilities: 29.9 %. (male 58%, female 42 %)

Phonetically disabilities: 13.4 %. (male 61.5%, female 38.5 %)

Hearing disabilities: 10.7 %. (male 53.6%, female 46.4 %)

Mental disabilities: 9.8 % (male 60.2 %, female 39.8 %)

Psychological/sociological disabilities: 2.8 % ( male 53.4 %, female 46.6)


Based on the second statistical studies:

This study is based on students in schools only, from 6 to 17 years old. D. Albatal estimates students with learning disabilities as 45 % of the total. In my opinion and based on my experience in public school for ten years I can say that this percent is not true, especially that the study is estimated but not coherent.


2-4: Extent of disability in Egypt:

Researches in Egypt show that percentage of disable people is 3.4%, that is mean more than 2 million person have some kind of disabilities. But we need to keep in mind that these numbers mentions major disabilities which is in general physical disabilities.

Researchers in Egypt give these numbers and kinds of disabilities the extent is based on the 2 million people:

Mental disabilities: 73 %.

Physical disabilities: 14.5 %.

Vision/hearing disabilities: 12.5 %.


The researcher also mentions the limited income in Egypt that doesn’t allowed the country to extend the program to cover all those people, since the current efforts can cover only 1.00 % of the total. According to the head of new strategy “general Hamadah” the new programs try to increase these efforts to cover 50 % of the total in 20 years from now.

The painful situation does not encourage the country to focus on other kinds of disabilities such as learning disabilities. So those can be classified as unknown.


2-5: Extent of disability in India:


Source of these numbers is (Prof. Ali Baque).

Estimates of the number of disabled vary a great deal, depending on the definitions, the source, the methodology and the extent of use of scientific instruments in identifying and measuring the degree of disability. It is estimated that the population with disability in India is approximately over 90 million, of these 12 million are blind, 28.5 million are with low vision, 12 million are with speech and hearing defects, 6 million orthopaedically handicapped, 24 million mentally retarded, 7.5 million mentally ill, 1.1 million leprosy cured.

A comprehensive country-wide sample survey of persons with disabilities was undertaken by National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) in its 36th round in 1981 at the request of the Ministry of Welfare which indicated that 1.8 per cent of the total population of the country has physical and sensory disabilities. No survey on mentally retarded persons was done at that time. However, surveys done by various research organizations indicate that about 2 - 2.5 per cent of the total population of the country has mental retardation.

Another survey was conducted by NSSO in 1991 to estimate the magnitude of the persons with disabilities in India. The survey indicated the following important findings :-

1.      About 1.9 per cent of the total population of the country, i.e., 16.15 million persons have physical or sensory disabilities which include visual, speech, hearing and locomotor disabilities. There was thus a slight increase in disability over the previous decade both in terms of absolute numbers and percentage.

2.      In a separate survey of children (age 0-14 years) with delayed mental development, it was found that 29 out of 1000 children in the rural areas had developmental delays which are usually associated with mental retardation. Approximately 3 per cent of the children between 0-14 years of age have developmental delays associated with mental retardation.

3.      The prevalence rate for physical disability was observed to be significantly more amongst males (22.77/1000) than females (16.94/1000).

4.      As regards the State-wise distribution of physical disability, the States which have higher prevalence rate, than the national average, were Andhra Pradesh (24.98/1000), Himachal Pradesh (28.70/1000), Karnataka (21.31/1000), Madhya Pradesh (27/1000), Orissa (23.06/1000), Punjab (29.36/1000) and Tamil Nadu (23.72/1000). The national average is 19/1000.

5.      The rate of prevalence of physical disability in urban population was 16.75/1000 as compared to 19.75/1000 in rural areas.

6.      About 12.3 per cent of the disabled people identified were multi-handicapped.

7.      9.14 and 6.77 per cent of the total estimated households respectively in rural and urban India were reported to have at least one disabled person in the household. The average household size in urban and rural sectors was 5.8 persons.

8.      The incidence of physical disability (number born or otherwise rendered disabled) in the rural areas of the country was on an average 90 persons per 1,00,000 population during the past one year. The figure in respect of the urban areas was 83.

9.      The incidence rate, as is the case with prevalence rate, is higher in the case of males than females. There were significant inter-state variations. The rates among males were 99 and 90 in rural and urban India respectively as against 81 and 75 among females in rural and urban areas respectively.

10.     Among the physically disabled 25 percent of the disabled people in the rural areas and 20 percent in urban areas suffered from such severe disabilities that they could not perform activities of self-care and daily living even with aids/appliances.

Estimated number of disabled persons in the country, on the basis of the survey is as follows:







Table No. 1

Estimated Number of Disabled Persons in India - 1991

(in millions)

Type of Disability




































Hearing and/or Speech
















Physical (at least one of the above)









1.      Figures in brackets indicate percentages, and percentages shown in cols. (1) and (2), in cols (3) and (6), and in cols. (4) and (5) add up to 100.

2.      Figures of hearing, speech and hearing and/or speech disability excludes the age-group below 5 years.

Source: Report No. 393. NSSO. A Report on Disabled Persons. 47th Round July - December 1991 & Report on Manpower Development. Rehabilitation Council of India, New Delhi, January 1996.



The age-wise distribution per thousand disabled has been found to be as follows:


Table No. 2
Type of Disability

Age group (Years)


















































60 and above











Notes :
Rur = Rural
Urb = Urban
N.A. = Not Available

Source : Report No. 393 NSSO A Report on Disabled Persons 47th Round July - December - 1991.

Amongst the visually handicapped, nearly 70 per cent are in the age-group 60+ and less than 3 per cent are in the age group of 0-14. For speech disability, nearly 26 per cent are in 5-14 age group. Nearly 50 per cent of the locomotor disabled and the speech disabled are in the age group 15-59.


2-6 Conclusion of chapter two:

The causes of lacking of a clear definition of learning disability leads to unclear situations about the extend of the student with learning disabilities in our schools.

Some countries deal with students with learning disability as handicapped students “or students with physical disabilities” only. So their numbers show only those students. We can see low extends in these countries because of this reason, the example is Egypt and India. There are several reasons behind focussing only on handicapped students in these countries, such as the difficulty of recognizing other students with learning disabilities, and the lack of methods and experiences in this field. In some countries the low economy level made helping those students over their abilities, so they rarely help normal students and handicapped only, which every one can see it.

In other countries, the educational departments or organizations and other educational interests want to cover every child who has learning disabilities of any kind, so their numbers are huge comparing with other countries. We can see this in the U.S. extends.

As I found in the U.S there are more numbers because of the wide ranges that definitions cover. In other countries the numbers are less because of the focus on a part of learning disabilities, which is physical disabilities only, as it in India and Egypt. While in other countries such as Saudi, they are struggling between the old understanding of learning disabilities, which is equal with physical disabilities, and the new definitions that cover any kind of learning disabilities. So the extend are vary based on the view of the researchers and there are not completely agreement or official statistic about the extend.

Chapter three

تواصل معنا

الجدول الدراسي

روابط مكتبات


التوحد مش مرض

متلازمة داون

روابط هامة

برنامج كشف الإنتحال العلمي (تورنتن)

روابط مهمة للأوتيزم

ساعات الإستشارات النفسية والتربوية

تجول عبر الانترنت

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موعد تسليم المشروع البحثي

على طالبات المستوى الثامن  شعبة رقم (147) مقرر LED 424 الالتزام بتسليم التكليفات الخاصة بالمشروع في الموعد المحدد  (3/8/1440هـ)


معايير تقييم المشروع البحثي الطلابي


ندوة الدور الاجتماعي للتعليم


حالة الطقس

المجمعة حالة الطقس

الساعات المكتبية

التميز في العمل الوظيفي


(التميز في العمل الوظيفي)

برنامج تدريبي مقدم إلى إدارة تعليم محافظة الغاط – إدارة الموارد البشرية - وحدة تطوير الموارد البشرية يوم الأربعاء 3/ 5 / 1440 هـ. الوقت: 8 ص- 12 ظهرًا بمركز التدريب التربوي (بنات) بالغاط واستهدف قياديات ومنسوبات إدارة التعليم بالغاط

تشخيص وعلاج التهتهة في الكلام


حملة سرطان الأطفال(سنداً لأطفالنا)


اليوم العالمي للطفل


المهارات الناعمة ومخرجات التعلم


المهارات الناعمة

المهارات الناعمة مفهوم يربط بين التكوين والتعليم وبين حاجات سوق العمل، تعتبر مجالاً واسعاً وحديثا يتسم بالشمولية ويرتبط بالجوانب النفسية والاجتماعية عند الطالب الذي يمثل مخرجات تعلم أي مؤسسة تعليمية، لذلك؛ فإن هذه المهارات تضاف له باستمرار – وفق متغيرات سوق العمل وحاجة المجتمع – وهي مهارات جديدة مثل مهارات إدارة الأزمات ومهارة حل المشاكل وغيرها. كما أنها تمثلالقدرات التي يمتلكها الفرد وتساهم في تطوير ونجاح المؤسسة التي ينتمي إليها. وترتبط هذه المهارات بالتعامل الفعّال وتكوين العلاقات مع الآخرينومن أهم المهارات الناعمة:


مهارات التفكير الناقد

مهارات الفكر الناقد والقدرة على التطوير من خلال التمكن من أساليب التقييم والحكم واستنتاج الحلول والأفكار الخلاقة، وهي من بين المهارات الناعمة الأكثر طلبا وانتشارا، وقد بدأت الجامعات العربية تضع لها برامج تدريب خاصة أو تدمجها في المواد الدراسية القريبة منها لأنه بات ثابتا أنها من أهم المؤهلات التي تفتح باب بناء وتطوير الذات أمام الطالب سواء في مسيرته التعليمية أو المهنية.


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مخرجات التعلم

تصنيف بلوم لقياس مخرجات التعلم


التعلم القائم على النواتج (المخرجات)

التعلم القائم على المخرجات يركز على تعلم الطالب خلال استخدام عبارات نواتج التعلم التي تصف ما هو متوقع من المتعلم معرفته، وفهمه، والقدرة على أدائه بعد الانتهاء من موقف تعليمي، وتقديم أنشطة التعلم التي تساعد الطالب على اكتساب تلك النواتج، وتقويم مدى اكتساب الطالب لتلك النواتج من خلال استخدام محكات تقويم محدودة.

ما هي مخرجات التعلم؟

عبارات تبرز ما سيعرفه الطالب أو يكون قادراً على أدائه نتيجة للتعليم أو التعلم أو كليهما معاً في نهاية فترة زمنية محددة (مقرر – برنامج – مهمة معينة – ورشة عمل – تدريب ميداني) وأحياناً تسمى أهداف التعلم)

خصائص مخرجات التعلم

أن تكون واضحة ومحددة بدقة. يمكن ملاحظتها وقياسها. تركز على سلوك المتعلم وليس على نشاط التعلم. متكاملة وقابلة للتطوير والتحويل. تمثيل مدى واسعا من المعارف والمهارات المعرفية والمهارات العامة.


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