Dr. Mona Tawakkul Elsayed

Associate Prof. of Mental Health and Special Education

How is Autism Trea

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How is Autism Treated?

Treatment for autism is usually a very intensive, comprehensive undertaking that

involves the child’s entire family and a team of professionals. Some programs

may take place in your home. These may be based in your home with

professional specialists and trained therapists or may include training for you to serve as

a therapist for your child under supervision of a professional. Some programs are

delivered in a specialized center, classroom or preschool. It is not unusual for a family to

choose to combine more than one treatment method.

The terms “treatment” and “therapy” may be used interchangeably. The word

“intervention” may also be used to describe a treatment or therapy.

We’ve provided an overview of many different treatment methods for autism in this

section of your kit. The descriptions are meant to give you general information Your

pediatrician, developmental pediatrician, or a social worker who specializes in the

treatment of children with autism, can make suggestions or help you prioritize therapies

based on your child’s comprehensive evaluation. Once you have narrowed down some

choices of appropriate therapies for your child, you will want to explore more

comprehensive information before making a commitment to one. For many children,

autism is complicated by medical conditions, biological issues and symptoms that are

not exclusive to autism. Children with other disorders, such as Articulation Disorder,

Apraxia, Seizures, GI problems, etc. might require some of the same therapies.

Examples of these treatments are Speech & Language Therapy, Occupational

Therapy, or the care of a Neurologist or Gastroenterologist. For this reason, we’ve

included information here to explain the treatments for the core symptoms of autism and

the treatments for associated symptoms and biological and medical conditions. Intensive

treatments for autism’s core symptoms address the social, communication and

behavioral issues at the heart of autism. Treatments for associated symptoms address

challenges commonly associated with autism, but not specific to the disorder. If your

child has biological or medical conditions, such as allergies, food intolerances,

gastrointestinal issues or sleep disturbances, these will need to be treated too.

Treatment programs may combine therapies for both core symptoms and associated

symptoms. Your child’s treatment program will depend on his needs and strengths.

Some of these therapies may be used together. For example, if medical causes for sleep

disturbances are ruled out, a behavioral intervention might be used to address them.

Occupational Therapy or Speech & Language Therapy are often integrated into one of

the intensive therapy programs described here as core symptom therapies. Many

children benefit from receiving multiple therapies provided in the same learning format.

The National Research Council recommends that, during the preschool period, children

with autism should receive approximately 25 hours of structured intervention per week.

Intervention can include time spent in a developmental program, speech-language

therapy, occupational therapy, one-on-one or small group intervention, and parentdelivered



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Therapies include a wide range of tools, services and teaching methods you

may choose to use to help your child reach his or her potential. The

recommended number of hours of structured intervention is 25 hours per week

during the preschool period.

For school-age children the therapy may be provided during the school day and

if necessary, there may be additional therapy provided outside of the school day.

The type of services (i.e. Speech and Language Therapy), the duration of the

service (i.e. 45 minutes), the frequency of the service (i.e. 3 days/week), as well

as the location (in school) will be provided as part of your child’s Individual

Education Program

Many of the therapy methods described here are very complex and will require more

esearch on your part before you get started. Whenever possible, observe the therapies

in action. Talk to experienced parents and make sure you have a thorough

understanding of what is involved before beginning any therapy for your child.


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Treatment for the Core Symptoms of


Most families use one type of intensive intervention that best meets the needs of

their child and their parenting style. The intensive interventions described here

require multiple hours per week of therapy, and address behavioral,

developmental, and/or educational goals. They are developed specifically to treat

autism. During the course of treatment, it may be necessary to reevaluate which method

is best for your child.

Therapies are not always delivered in a “pure format.” Some intervention

providers who work primarily in one format may use successful techniques from

another format.

Before we get into the types of therapies available, it is helpful to take a step back and

look at the bigger picture. Although research and experience have revealed many of the

mysteries surrounding autism, it remains a complex disorder that impacts each child

differently. However, many children with autism have made remarkable breakthroughs

with the right combination of therapies and interventions. Most parents would welcome a

cure for their child, or a therapy that would alleviate all of the symptoms and challenges

that make life difficult for them. Just as your child’s challenges can’t be summed up in

one word, they can’t be remedied with one therapy. Each challenge must be addressed

with an appropriate therapy. No single therapy works for every child. What works for one

child may not work for another. What works for one child for a period of time may stop

working. Some therapies are supported by research showing their efficacy, while others

are not. The skill, experience, and style of the therapist are critical to the effectiveness of

the intervention.

Before you choose an intervention, you will need to investigate the claims of each

therapy so that you understand the possible risks and benefits for your child. At first, all

of these techniques, ABA, VB, PRT, DTT, ESDM, among others, may seem like

alphabet soup to you. You may be confused now, but you will be surprised at how

quickly you become “fluent” in the terminology of autism therapies.

For information on different treatment options, turn to the glossary in this kit, or

visit www.AutismSpeaks.org and view the National Standards Project

produced by the National Autism Center at


You should also see your pediatrician for more information, so that you can be

confident you are making informed choices as you begin to narrow down your


Behavior analysis was originally described by B.F. Skinner in the 1930’s. You may have

learned about Skinner and “operant conditioning” when you studied science in school.

The principles and methods of behavior analysis have been applied effectively in many

circumstances to develop a wide range of skills in learners with and without disabilities.


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What is Applied Behavioral Analysis?

Since the early 1960’s, applied behavior analysis, or ABA, has been used by

hundreds of therapists to teach communication, play, social, academic, self-care,

work and community living skills, and to reduce problem behaviors in learners

with autism. There is a great deal of research literature that has demonstrated that ABA

is effective for improving children’s outcomes, especially their cognitive and language

abilities. Over the past several decades, different models using ABA have emerged, all

of which use behavioral teaching. They all use strategies that are based on Skinner’s

work. ABA is often difficult to understand until you see it in action. It may be helpful to

start by describing what all of the different methods of ABA have in common. ABA

methods use the following three step process to teach:

An antecedent, which is a verbal or physical stimulus such as a command or

request. This may come from the environment or from another person, or be internal

to the subject;

A resulting behavior, which is the subject’s (or in this case, the child’s) response or

lack of response to the antecedent;

A consequence, which depends on the behavior. The consequence can include

positive reinforcement of the desired behavior or no reaction for incorrect responses.

ABA targets the learning of skills and the reduction of challenging behaviors. Most

ABA programs are highly-structured. Targeted skills and behaviors are based on an

established curriculum. Each skill is broken down into small steps, and taught using

prompts, which are gradually eliminated as the steps are mastered. The child is

given repeated opportunities to learn and practice each step in a variety of settings.

Each time the child achieves the desired result, he receives positive reinforcement,

such as verbal praise, or something else that the child finds to be highly motivating,

like a small piece of candy. ABA programs often include support for the child in a

school setting with a one-on-one aide to target the systemic transfer of skills to a

typical school environment. Skills are broken down into manageable pieces and built

upon so that a child learns how to learn in a natural environment. Facilitated play

with peers is often part of the intervention. Success is measured by direct

observation and data collection and analysis – all critical components of ABA. If the

child isn’t making satisfactory progress, adjustments are made.

One type of ABA intervention is Discrete Trial Teaching (also referred to as DTT,

“traditional ABA” or the Lovaas Model, for its pioneer, Dr. Ivar Lovaas). DTT involves

teaching individual skills one at a time using several repeated teaching trials and

reinforcers that may or may not be intrinsically related to the skill that is being taught.

Who provides traditional ABA or DTT?

A board certified behavior analyst specializing in autism will write, implement and

monitor the child’s individualized program. Individual therapists, often called

“trainers,” (not necessarily board certified) will work directly with the child on a day-today



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What is a typical ABA therapy session like?

Sessions are typically 2 to 3 hours long, consisting of short periods of structured

time devoted to a task, usually lasting 3 to 5 minutes. 10 to 15 minute breaks are

often taken at the end of every hour. Free play and breaks are used for incidental

teaching or practicing skills in new environments. Done correctly, ABA intervention for

autism is not a "one size fits all" approach consisting of a "canned" set of programs or

drills. On the contrary, every aspect of intervention is customized to each learner's skills,

needs, interests, preferences, and family situation. For those reasons, an ABA program

for one learner might look somewhat different than a program for another learner. An

ABA program will also change as the needs and functioning of the learner change.

What is the intensity of most ABA programs?

25 to 40 hours per week. Families are also encouraged to use ABA principals in

their daily lives.

To find more information on ABA go to

The Association for Behavior Analysis International


Behavior Analyst Certification Board


What is the difference between Traditional ABA and other

interventions that involve ABA, such as Verbal Behavior,

Pivotal Response Treatment, and the Early Start Denver


Verbal Behavior and Pivotal Response Treatment therapies use the methods of

ABA, but with different emphasis and techniques. All of these methods use the

three step process described above.

What is Pivotal Response Treatment?

Pivotal Response Treatment, or PRT, was developed by Dr. Robert L. Koegel,

Dr. Lynn Kern Koegel and Dr. Laura Shreibman, at the University of California,

Santa Barbara. Pivotal Response Treatment was previously called the Natural

Language Paradigm (NLP), which has been in development since the 1970s. It is a

behavioral intervention model based on the principles of ABA.

PRT is used to teach language, decrease disruptive/self-stimulatory behaviors, and

increase social, communication, and academic skills by focusing on critical, or “pivotal,”

behaviors that affect a wide range of behaviors. The primary pivotal behaviors are

motivation and initiation of communications with others. The goal of PRT is to produce


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positive changes in the pivotal behaviors, leading to improvement in communication

skills, play skills, social behaviors and the child’s ability to monitor his or her own

behavior. Unlike the Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT) method of teaching, which targets

individual behaviors based on an established curriculum, PRT is child-directed.

Motivational strategies are used throughout intervention as often as possible. These

include varying tasks, revisiting mastered tasks to ensure the child retains acquired

skills, rewarding attempts, and using direct and natural reinforcement. The child plays a

crucial role in determining the activities and objects that will be used in the PRT

exchange. For example, a child’s purposeful attempts at functional communication are

rewarded with reinforcement related to their effort to communicate (e.g. if a child

attempts a request for a stuffed animal, the child receives the animal).

Who provides PRT?

Some psychologists, special education teachers, speech therapists and other

providers specifically are trained in PRT. The Koegel Autism Center offers a PRT

Certification program.

What is a typical PRT therapy session like?

Each program is tailored to meet the goals and needs of the child, and also to fit

into the family routines. A session typically involves six segments during which

language, play, and social skills are targeted in structured and unstructured formats.

Sessions change to accommodate more advanced goals and the changing needs as the

child develops.

What is the intensity of a PRT program?

PRT programs usually involve 25 or more hours per week. Everyone involved in the

child’s life is encouraged to use PRT methods consistently in every part of the

child’s life. PRT has been described as a lifestyle adopted by the affected family.

Where can I find more information on PRT?

UCSB Koegel Autism Center


UCSD Autism Research Program


What is Verbal Behavior?

Another behavioral (based on the principles of ABA) therapy method with a

different approach to the acquisition and function of language is Verbal Behavior

(VB) therapy. In his 1957 book, “Verbal Behavior,” B.F. Skinner (see previous

section on ABA) detailed a functional analysis of language. He described all of the parts

of language as a system. Verbal Behavior uses Skinner’s analysis as a basis for

teaching language and shaping behavior.


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Skinner theorized that all language could be grouped into a set of units, which he called

operants. Each operant he identified serves a different function. He listed echoics,

mands, tacts and intraverbals as the most important of these operants. The function of a

“mand” is to request or obtain what is wanted. For example, the child learns to say the

word “cookie” when he is interested in obtaining a cookie. When the child is given the

cookie, the word is reinforced and will be used again in the same context. In a VB

program, the child is taught to ask for the cookie any way he can (vocally, sign language,

etc.). If the child can echo the work, he will be motivated to do so in order to obtain the

desired object. The operant for labeling an object is called a “tact.” For example, the

child says the word “cookie” when seeing a picture and is thus labeling the item. In VB,

more importance is placed on the mand than on the tact, theorizing that “using

language” is different from “knowing language.” An “intraverbal” describes

conversational or social, language. Intraverbals allow children to discuss something that

isn’t present. For example, the child finishes the sentence, “I’m baking…” with the

intraverbal fill-in “Cookies.” Intraverbals also include responses to questions from

another person, usually answers to “wh-“questions (Who? What? When? Where?

Why?). Intraverbals are strengthened with social reinforcement.

VB and classic ABA use similar behavioral formats to work with children. VB is designed

to motivate a child to learn language by developing a connection between a word and its

value. VB may be used as an extension of the communication section of an ABA


Who provides VB?

VB therapy is provided by VB-trained psychologists, special education teachers,

speech therapists and other providers.

What is the intensity of most VB programs?

VB programs usually involve 30 or more hours per week of scheduled therapy.

Families are encouraged to use VB principals in their daily lives.

For Information on VB go to

Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies


What is the Early Start Denver Model


The Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) is a developmental, relationship-based

intervention approach that utilizes teaching techniques consistent with applied

behavior analysis (ABA). The goals are to foster social gains – communicative,

cognitive, and language – in young children with autism, and to reduce atypical

behaviors associated with autism. ESDM is appropriate for children with autism or

autism symptoms who are as young as 12 months of age, through preschool age. The


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content of intervention for each child comes from assessment using a comprehensive

ESDM Curriculum Checklist which covers all domains of early development: Cognitive

Skills, Language, Social Behavior, Imitation, Fine and Gross Motor Skills, Self-help Skills

and Adaptive Behavior. Adults delivering ESDM focus on behaviors involved in

capturing and holding children’s attention, fostering their motivation for social interaction

through highly enjoyable routines, using joint play activities as the medium for treatment,

developing nonverbal and verbal communication, imitation, and joint attention, and using

reciprocal, turn-taking exchanges inside joint activity routines to foster social learning.

Based on a NIH-funded clinical trial, ESDM has been shown to be effective for

increasing IQ, language, social skills, and adaptive behavior when delivered for at least

one year.

Who provides ESDM?

ESDM can be provided by ESDM-trained behavior analysts, special education

teachers, speech therapists and other providers. Parents can also be taught to use

ESDM strategies.

What is the intensity of most ESDM programs?

ESDM programs usually involve 20-25 or more hours per week of scheduled

therapy. Families are encouraged to use ESDM strategies in their daily lives.

What is a typical ESDM session like?

ESDM is designed to be highly engaging and enjoyable for the child, while skills are

systematically taught within a naturalistic, play-based interaction. Some skills are

taught on the floor during interactive play while others are taught at the table, focusing

on more structured activities. As the child develops social skills, peers or siblings are

included in the therapy session to promote peer relationships. ESDM can be delivered

in the home, the clinic, or a birth-to-three or developmental preschool setting.

To find more information on ESDM:

ESDM Manual: Rogers, SJ., & Dawson, G. (2009). Play and Engagement in

Early Autism: The Early Start Denver Model. New York: Guilford.

ESDM curriculum checklist: Rogers, SJ and Dawson, G. (2009) The ESDM

Curriculum Checklist.

Information about training in the ESDM model can be found at this website:


What is Floortime (DIR)?

Floortime is a specific therapeutic technique based on the Developmental

Individual Difference Relationship Model (DIR) developed in the 1980s by Dr.

Stanley Greenspan. The premise of Floortime is that an adult can help a child

expand his circles of communication by meeting him at his developmental level and


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building on his strengths. Therapy is often incorporated into play activities – on the floor.

The goal of Floortime is to help the child reach six developmental milestones that

contribute to emotional and intellectual growth:

Self regulation and interest in the world

Intimacy or a special love for the world of human relations

Two-way communication

Complex communication

Emotional ideas

Emotional thinking

In Floortime, the therapist or parent engages the child at a level the child currently

enjoys, enters the child’s activities, and follows the child’s lead. From a mutually shared

engagement, the parent is instructed how to move the child toward more increasingly

complex interactions, a process known as “opening and closing circles of


Floortime does not separate and focus on speech, motor, or cognitive skills but rather

addresses these areas through a synthesized emphasis on emotional development. The

intervention is called Floortime because the parent gets down on the floor with the child

to engage him at his level. Floortime is considered an alternative to and is sometimes

delivered in combination with ABA therapies.

Who provides Floortime?

Parents and caregivers are trained to implement the approach. Floortime-trained

psychologists, special education teachers, speech therapists, occupational

therapists may also use Floortime techniques.

What is a typical Floortime therapy session like?

In Floortime, the parent or provider joins in the child’s activities and follows the

child’s lead. The parent or provider then engages the child in increasingly complex

interactions. During the preschool program, Floortime includes integration with typically

developing peers.

What is the intensity of most Floortime programs?

Floortime is usually delivered in a low stimulus environment, ranging from two to

five hours a day. Families are encouraged to use the principals of Floortime in their

day to day lifestyle.

To find more information on Floortime go to:

Floortime Foundation


Stanley Greenspan


Interdisciplinary Council on Developmental and


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Learning Disorders


What is Relationship Development

Intervention (RDI)?

Like other therapies described in this handbook, RDI is a system of behavior

modification through positive reinforcement. RDI was developed by Dr. Steven

Gutstein as a parent-based treatment using dynamic intelligence. The goal of

RDI is to improve the long-term quality of life of individuals with autism by helping them

improve their social skills, adaptability and self-awareness. The six objectives of RDI are:

Emotional Referencing: The ability to use an emotional feedback system to learn

from the subjective experiences of others.

Social Coordination: The ability to observe and continually regulate one’s behavior

in order to participate in spontaneous relationships involving collaboration and

exchange of emotions.

Declarative Language: The ability to use language and non-verbal communication

to express curiosity, invite others to interact, share perceptions and feelings and

coordinate your actions with others.

Flexible Thinking: The ability to rapidly adapt, change strategies and alter plans

based upon changing circumstances.

Relational Information Processing: The ability to obtain meaning based upon the

larger context; Solving problems that have no “right-and wrong” solutions.

Foresight and Hindsight: The ability to reflect on past experiences and anticipate

potential future scenarios in a productive manner.

The program involves a systematic approach to working on building motivation and

teaching skills, focusing on the child’s current developmental level of functioning.

Children begin work in a one-on-one setting with a parent. When they are ready, they

are matched with a peer at a similar level of relationship development to form a “dyad.”

Gradually, additional children are added to the group, as well as the number of settings

in which children practice, in order to help the child form and maintain relationships in

different contexts.

Who provides RDI?

Parents, teachers and other professionals can be trained to provide RDI. Parents

may choose to work together with an RDI-certified consultant. RDI is somewhat

unique because it is designed to be implemented by parents. Parents learn the program

through training seminars, books and other materials and can collaborate with an RDIcertified

consultant. Some specialized schools offer RDI in a private school setting.

What is a typical RDI therapy session like?

In RDI, the parent or provider uses a comprehensive set of step-by-step,

developmentally appropriate objectives in everyday life situations, based on


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different levels, or stages, of ability. Spoken language may be limited in order to

encourage eye contact and non-verbal communication. RDI may also be delivered in a

specialized school setting.

What is the intensity of most RDI programs?

Families most often use the principles of RDI in their day to day lifestyle. Each

family will make choices based on their child.

Where can I find more information on RDI?

Connections Center


What is Training and Education of

Autistic and Related Communication

Handicapped Children (TEACCH)?

TEACCH is a special education program, developed by Eric Schopler, PhD and

his colleagues at the University of North Carolina in the early 1970s. TEACCH’s

intervention approach is called “Structured Teaching.” Structured Teaching is

based on what TEACCH calls the “Culture of Autism.” The Culture of Autism refers to

the relative strengths and difficulties shared by people with autism that are relevant to

how they learn. Structured Teaching is designed to capitalize on the relative strengths

and preferences for processing information visually, while taking into account the

recognized difficulties. Children with autism are assessed in order to identify emerging

skills, and work then focuses on these skills to enhance them. In Structured Teaching,

an individualized plan is developed for each student. The plan creates a highly

structured environment to help the individual map out activities. The physical and social

environment is organized using visual supports so that the child can more easily predict

and understand daily activities and as a result, respond in appropriate ways. Visual

supports are also used to make individual tasks understandable.

What does TEACCH look like?

TEACCH programs are usually conducted in a classroom setting. TEACCH-based

home programs are also available and are sometimes used in conjunction with a

TEACCH-based classroom program. Parents work with professionals as co-therapists

for their children so that TEACCH techniques can be continued in the home.

Who provides TEACCH?

TEACCH is available at the TEACCH centers in North Carolina, and through

TEACCH-trained psychologists, special education teachers, speech therapists and

other providers in other areas of the country.


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To find more information on TEACCH go to: TEACCH Autism Program


What is Social Communication/ Emotional

Regulation/ Transactional Support


SCERTS is an educational model developed by Barry Prizant, PhD, Amy

Wetherby, PhD, Emily Rubin and Amy Laurant. SCERTS uses practices from

other approaches including ABA (in the form of PRT), TEACCH, Floortime and

RDI. The SCERTS Model differs most notably from the focus of “traditional” ABA by

promoting child-initiated communication in everyday activities. SCERTS is most

concerned with helping children with autism to achieve “Authentic Progress,” which is

defined as the ability to learn and spontaneously apply functional and relevant skills in a

variety of settings and with a variety of partners. The acronym “SCERTS” refers to the

focus on:

“SC” Social Communication - Development of spontaneous, functional

communication, emotional expression and secure and trusting relationships with

children and adults.

“ER” Emotional Regulation - Development of the ability to maintain a well-regulated

emotional state to cope with everyday stress, and to be most available for learning

and interacting.

“TS” Transactional Support - Development and implementation of supports to help

partners respond to the child’s needs and interests, modify and adapt the

environment, and provide tools to enhance learning (e.g., picture communication,

written schedules, and sensory supports). Specific plans are also developed to

provide educational and emotional support to families, and to foster teamwork

among professionals.

What does a SCERTS session look like?

The SCERTS Model favors having children learn with and from other children who

provide good social and language models in inclusive settings, as much as

possible. SCERTS is implemented using transactional supports put in place by a team,

such as environmental accommodations, and learning supports, like schedules or visual


Who provides SCERTS?

SCERTS is usually provided in a school setting by SCERTS-trained special

education teachers or speech therapists.

Where can I find more information on SCERTS?




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Barry Prizant


Treatment for Biological & Medical

Conditions Associated with Autism

The next section of this handbook covers a number of what are frequently called

“related services.” These services are therapies that address symptoms

commonly associated with autism, but not specific to the disorder.

Speech-Language Therapy (SLT)

Speech-Language Therapy (SLT) encompasses a variety of techniques and

addresses a range of challenges for children with autism. For instance, some

individuals with autism are unable to speak. Others seem to love to talk. They may have

difficulty understanding information, or they may struggle to express themselves. SLT is

designed to coordinate the mechanics of speech and the meaning and social value of

language. An SLT program begins with an individual evaluation by a speech-language

pathologist. The therapy may then be conducted one-on-one, in a small group, or in a

classroom setting. The therapy may have different goals for different children.

Depending on the verbal aptitude of the individual, the goal might be to master spoken

language or it might be to learn signs or gestures to communicate. In each case, the aim

is to help the individual learn useful and functional communication. SLT is provided by

Speech-Language Pathologists who specialize in children with autism. Most intensive

therapy programs address speech-language therapy as well.

Occupational Therapy (OT)

Occupational Therapy (OT) brings together cognitive, physical and motor skills. The

aim of OT is to enable the individual to gain independence and participate more

fully in life. For a child with autism, the focus may be on appropriate play, learning, and

basic life skills. An occupational therapist will evaluate the child’s development as well as

the psychological, social and environmental factors that may be involved. The therapist

will then prepare strategies and tactics for learning key tasks to practice at home, in

school, and other settings. Occupational therapy is usually delivered in 30 minute to one

hour sessions with the frequency determined by the needs of the child. Goals of an OT

program might include independent dressing, feeding, grooming, and use of the toilet, as

well as improved social, fine motor and visual perceptual skills. OT is provided by

Certified Occupational Therapists.

Sensory Integration (SI)

Sensory Integration (SI) therapy is designed to identify disruptions in the way the

individual’s brain processes movement, touch, smell, sight and sound, and help he

or she process these senses in a more productive way. It is sometimes used alone, but

is often part of an occupational therapy program. It is believed that SI does not teach

higher-level skills, but rather enhances sensory processing abilities, allowing the child to

be more available to acquire higher-level skills. Sensory Integration therapy might be


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used to help calm your child, to help reinforce a desired behavior, or to help with

transitions between activities. Therapists begin with an individual evaluation to determine

your child’s sensitivities. The therapist then plans an individualized program for the child,

matching sensory stimulation with physical movement, to improve the way the brain

processes and organizes sensory information. SI therapy often includes equipment such

as swings, trampolines and slides. Certified Occupational and Physical Therapists

provide Sensory Integration Therapy.

Physical Therapy (PT)

Physical Therapy (PT) is focused on any problems with movement that cause

functional limitations. Children with autism frequently have challenges with motor

skills such as sitting, walking, running or jumping. PT can address poor muscle tone,

balance and coordination. A physical therapist will start by evaluating the developmental

level and abilities of the child. Once they identify the individual’s challenges, the physical

therapists design activities that target those areas. PT might include assisted movement,

various forms of exercise, and orthopedic equipment. Physical therapy is usually

delivered in 30 minute to one hour sessions by a Certified Physical Therapist, with the

frequency determined by the needs of the child.

Social Skills

Individuals with autism have a great deal of difficulty with social interactions. In

recent years, social skills training, in both one-on-one and peer group settings, has

become a very common treatment for facing this particular challenge. Social skills taught

during training sessions range from simple skills like eye contact, to more difficult skills

like inviting a peer for a play date. Studies have shown that this type of intervention

program can significantly improve social competence and social skill development.

Though social skills training is not an official or certified form of therapy, professionals

like social workers, speech therapists, and psychologists often focus largely on

improving social skills when treating both children and adults with autism. In addition,

parents, family members, and other caregivers can be taught effective ways to help

improve the social skills of their loved ones with autism inside and outside the home on a

regular basis.

Picture Exchange Communication System

Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a learning system that allows

children with little or no verbal ability to communicate using pictures. PECS can be

used at home, in the classroom or in a variety of other settings. A therapist, teacher or

parent helps the child to build a vocabulary, and to articulate desires, observations or

feelings by using pictures consistently. The PECS program starts by teaching the child

how to exchange a picture for an object. Eventually, the individual is shown how to

distinguish between pictures and symbols and use them to form sentences. Although

PECS is based on visual tools, verbal reinforcement is a major component, and verbal

communication is encouraged. Standard PECS pictures can be purchased as a part of a

manual, or pictures can be gathered from photos, newspapers, magazines, or other


Auditory Integration Therapy

Auditory Integration Therapy (AIT), sometimes called Sound Therapy, is sometimes


©2010 Autism Speaks Inc. Autism Speaks and Autism Speaks It’s Time To List en & Design are trademarks owned by Autism Speaks Inc. All rights reserved.

used to treat children with difficulties in auditory processing or sound sensitivity.

Treatment with AIT involves the patient listening to electronically modified music through

headphones during multiple sessions. There are different methods of AIT, including the

Tomatis and Berard methods. While some individuals have reported improvements in

auditory processing as a result of AIT, there are no credible studies that demonstrate its

effectiveness or support its use.

Gluten Free, Casein Free Diet (GFCF)

Many families of children with autism are interested in dietary and nutritional

interventions that might help some of their children’s symptoms. Anecdotal

evidence suggests that removal of gluten (a protein found in barley, rye, and wheat, and

in oats through cross contamination) and casein (a protein found in dairy products) from

an individual’s can be helpful for reducing some symptoms of autism. The theory behind

this diet is that proteins are absorbed differently in some children. Children who benefit

from the GFCF diet experience physical and behavioral symptoms when consuming

gluten or casein, rather than an allergic reaction. While there have not yet been sufficient

scientific studies to support the effectiveness of the GFCF diet for reducing symptoms of

autism, many families report that dietary elimination of gluten and casein has helped

regulate bowel habits, sleep activity, habitual behaviors, and contributed to the overall

progress of their children. Because no specific laboratory tests can predict which

children will benefit from dietary intervention, many families choose to try the diet with

careful observation by the family and the intervention team.

Families choosing a trial of dietary restriction should make sure their child is receiving

adequate nutrition by consulting their pediatrician or a nutrition specialist. Dairy products

are the most common source of calcium and Vitamin D for young children in the United

States. Many young children depend on dairy products for a balanced, regular protein

intake. Alternative sources of these nutrients require the substitution of other food and

beverage products, with attention given to the nutritional content. Substitution of gluten

free products requires attention to the overall fiber and vitamin content of a child’s diet.

Vitamin supplements may have both benefits and side effects. Consultation with a

dietician or physician is recommended for the healthy application of a GFCF diet. This

may be especially true for children who are picky eaters.

What about Other Medical Interventions?

Right now you are eager to do everything possible to help your child. Many

parents in your position are eager to try new treatments, even those treatments

that have not yet been scientifically proven to be effective. Your hopes for a cure

for your child may make you more vulnerable to the lure of untested treatments. It is

important to remember that just as each child with autism is different, so is each child’s

response to treatments. It may be helpful to collect information about a therapy that you

are interested in trying, and speak with your pediatrician, as well as your intervention

team members, in order to discuss the potential risks/benefits and establish measurable

outcomes as well as baseline data. If you talk to the parents of older children with

autism, they can provide you with a history of therapies and biomedical interventions that

have been promised to be cures for autism over the years. Some of them may have

been helpful to a small number of children. Upon further study, none of them, so far, has


©2010 Autism Speaks Inc. Autism Speaks and Autism Speaks It’s Time To List en & Design are trademarks owned by Autism Speaks Inc. All rights reserved.

It’s scary to have to question your own child’s potential, but the best way to

relieve your fears is to take action with productive interventions. The first step

is to be informed. Talk to people you trust - parents who’ve been there, experts

in the field, doctors you have a relationship with, and so on. There are a lot of

fly-by-night procedures that prey on distraught parents who will do anything

for their child. Make sure that the interventions you’re using are scientifically

sound and well documented. Make sure they’ve been tested with many

children with autism and that they’ve been replicated by other experts and

clinics. Also, make sure you understand their limitations – some interventions

only work on a small number of symptoms or on a small subgroup of children

with autism. If you’re going to spend time and money for interventions, be

informed about the degree and extent of the change they may bring about.

turned out to be a cure for the vast majority. We do know that many children get better

with intensive behavioral therapy. There is a large body of scientific evidence to support

this theory. It makes sense to focus on getting your child engaged in an intensive

behavioral program before looking at other interventions.

Is There A Cure?

Is recovery possible? You may have heard about children who have recovered

from autism. Although relatively rare, it is estimated that approximately 10% of

children lose their diagnosis of autism. The factors that predict which children

lose their diagnosis are unknown. Children initially diagnosed with autism who lose their

diagnosis often have residual difficulties in the areas of hyperactivity, anxiety, and

depressive symptoms. Recovery from autism is usually reported in connection with

intensive early intervention, but it is unknown how much or which type of intervention

works best, or whether the recovery can be fully credited to the intervention. You may

also hear about children who reach “best outcome” status, which means they score

normally on tests for IQ, language, adaptive functioning, school placement, and

personality, but have mild symptoms on some personality and diagnostic tests. Recent

epidemiology studies estimate that approximately 60% of children with autism have IQ’s

above 70 by age 8 (70 is the cut-off point for developmental delay). Presently, there is

no reliable way of predicting which children will have the best outcomes. In the absence

of a cure or even an accurate prognosis of your child’s future, do not be afraid to believe

in your child’s potential. All children with autism will benefit from intervention. All will

make very significant, meaningful progress.

How Do I Choose the Right Intervention?

The two articles that follow may provide helpful information for you as you c

between methods of therapies for your child.


Alleviate Stress by Actively Pursuing the Right Intervention

From Overcoming Autism by Lynn Kern Koegel, PhD and Claire LaZebnik


©2010 Autism Speaks Inc. Autism Speaks and Autism Speaks It’s Time To List en & Design are trademarks owned by Autism Speaks Inc. All rights reserved.

Finding the right intervention program begins with an understanding of your

child’s learning style – which is quite different from the learning style of other

children. You probably realize this as you’ve tried to get your child with autism

to wave bye-bye using the same teaching strategies you used with your other

children – that is, demonstrating the action, providing a verbal prompt by

saying “wave bye-bye” and even moving his or her hand to demonstrate what

to do. But when that approach didn’t seem to be working, you probably started

to think that your child was being stubborn or uncooperative. After all, you’re

teaching simple skills using methods that worked very well for your other

children. But the reality is that your child isn’t being bad; he or she just has a

different learning style from your other children. This difference in learning

styles isn’t apparent only when you try to teach children with autism; it’s also

evident in the way they learn (or don’t learn) on their own. There are lots of

things that children without autism seem to learn effortlessly, without being

taught, but that children with autism don’t pick up on as easily. For example,

young children without autism somehow learn, without explicit teaching, how

to use a pointing gesture to let you know what they want or to indicate where

they want you to look. They learn to follow your point or eye gaze to figure out

what you’re looking at or what you’re interested in. They figure out on their

own how to use eye contact and facial expressions to convey their feelings-as

well as to understand the meaning of your facial expressions and tone of voice.

Social-communicative behaviors and skills like these just don’t come as

naturally to young children with autism and often need to be taught explicitly.

Understanding Your Child’s Learning Style

From Does My Child Have Autism? by Wendy Stone, PhD, & Theresa Foy

DiGeronimo, M.Ed


تواصل معنا

الجدول الدراسي

روابط مكتبات


التوحد مش مرض

متلازمة داون

روابط هامة

برنامج كشف الإنتحال العلمي (تورنتن)

روابط مهمة للأوتيزم

ساعات الإستشارات النفسية والتربوية

تجول عبر الانترنت

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موعد تسليم المشروع البحثي

على طالبات المستوى الثامن  شعبة رقم (147) مقرر LED 424 الالتزام بتسليم التكليفات الخاصة بالمشروع في الموعد المحدد  (3/8/1440هـ)


معايير تقييم المشروع البحثي الطلابي


ندوة الدور الاجتماعي للتعليم


حالة الطقس

المجمعة حالة الطقس

الساعات المكتبية

التميز في العمل الوظيفي


(التميز في العمل الوظيفي)

برنامج تدريبي مقدم إلى إدارة تعليم محافظة الغاط – إدارة الموارد البشرية - وحدة تطوير الموارد البشرية يوم الأربعاء 3/ 5 / 1440 هـ. الوقت: 8 ص- 12 ظهرًا بمركز التدريب التربوي (بنات) بالغاط واستهدف قياديات ومنسوبات إدارة التعليم بالغاط

تشخيص وعلاج التهتهة في الكلام


حملة سرطان الأطفال(سنداً لأطفالنا)


اليوم العالمي للطفل


المهارات الناعمة ومخرجات التعلم


المهارات الناعمة

المهارات الناعمة مفهوم يربط بين التكوين والتعليم وبين حاجات سوق العمل، تعتبر مجالاً واسعاً وحديثا يتسم بالشمولية ويرتبط بالجوانب النفسية والاجتماعية عند الطالب الذي يمثل مخرجات تعلم أي مؤسسة تعليمية، لذلك؛ فإن هذه المهارات تضاف له باستمرار – وفق متغيرات سوق العمل وحاجة المجتمع – وهي مهارات جديدة مثل مهارات إدارة الأزمات ومهارة حل المشاكل وغيرها. كما أنها تمثلالقدرات التي يمتلكها الفرد وتساهم في تطوير ونجاح المؤسسة التي ينتمي إليها. وترتبط هذه المهارات بالتعامل الفعّال وتكوين العلاقات مع الآخرينومن أهم المهارات الناعمة:


مهارات التفكير الناقد

مهارات الفكر الناقد والقدرة على التطوير من خلال التمكن من أساليب التقييم والحكم واستنتاج الحلول والأفكار الخلاقة، وهي من بين المهارات الناعمة الأكثر طلبا وانتشارا، وقد بدأت الجامعات العربية تضع لها برامج تدريب خاصة أو تدمجها في المواد الدراسية القريبة منها لأنه بات ثابتا أنها من أهم المؤهلات التي تفتح باب بناء وتطوير الذات أمام الطالب سواء في مسيرته التعليمية أو المهنية.


الصحة النفسية لأطفال متلازمة داون وأسرهم




لا للتعصب - نعم للحوار

يوم اليتيم العربي



موقع يساعد على تحرير الكتابة باللغة الإنجليزية


تطبيق يقوم تلقائيًا باكتشاف الأخطاء النحوية والإملائية وعلامات الترقيم واختيار الكلمات وأخطاء الأسلوب في الكتابة

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مخرجات التعلم

تصنيف بلوم لقياس مخرجات التعلم


التعلم القائم على النواتج (المخرجات)

التعلم القائم على المخرجات يركز على تعلم الطالب خلال استخدام عبارات نواتج التعلم التي تصف ما هو متوقع من المتعلم معرفته، وفهمه، والقدرة على أدائه بعد الانتهاء من موقف تعليمي، وتقديم أنشطة التعلم التي تساعد الطالب على اكتساب تلك النواتج، وتقويم مدى اكتساب الطالب لتلك النواتج من خلال استخدام محكات تقويم محدودة.

ما هي مخرجات التعلم؟

عبارات تبرز ما سيعرفه الطالب أو يكون قادراً على أدائه نتيجة للتعليم أو التعلم أو كليهما معاً في نهاية فترة زمنية محددة (مقرر – برنامج – مهمة معينة – ورشة عمل – تدريب ميداني) وأحياناً تسمى أهداف التعلم)

خصائص مخرجات التعلم

أن تكون واضحة ومحددة بدقة. يمكن ملاحظتها وقياسها. تركز على سلوك المتعلم وليس على نشاط التعلم. متكاملة وقابلة للتطوير والتحويل. تمثيل مدى واسعا من المعارف والمهارات المعرفية والمهارات العامة.


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مؤسسة بيروس للاختبارات والمقاييس


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