Dr. Mona Tawakkul Elsayed

Associate Prof. of Mental Health and Special Education

Learning Disabilities

Learning Disabilities

By: Suzanne Gosden
Kitchen and Sarah Dufalla (2006)


 


Introduction


JAN's Accommodation and
Compliance Series (JAN Consultant
Corner
) is designed to help determine effective accommodations and
comply with Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).


Accommodations should be
made on a case by case basis, considering each student’s individual limitations
and accommodation needs. This is determined by the Disabled Students Programs
& Service (DSPS) office.


Information about
Learning Disabilities


What are learning disabilities?


According to the National
Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (2006), learning disabilities
are disorders that affect the ability to understand or use spoken or written
language, do mathematical calculations, coordinate movements, or direct
attention. Although learning disabilities occur in very young children, the
disorders are usually not recognized until the child reaches school age. Learning
disabilities are a lifelong condition; they are not outgrown or cured, though
many people develop coping techniques through special education, tutoring,
medication, therapy, personal development, or adaptation of learning skills.
Approximately 15 million children, adolescents, and adults have learning
disabilities in the United States (National Center for Learning, 2006b).


What types of learning disabilities are
there?


Learning disabilities can
be divided into three broad categories: developmental speech and language
disorders, academic skills disorders, and other (such as coordination
disorders). Each category includes more specific disorders, which are described
below.


Specific Learning
Disability: A disorder in understanding or in using language, spoken or
written, which may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think,
speak, write, spell or to do mathematical calculations. Included in this
category are expressive writing disorders and other expressive language
disorders.


Dyslexia


A person with dyslexia
has average to above average intelligence, but has deficits in visual,
auditory, or motor process, which interfere with reading and reading
comprehension. The individual may also have difficulties with learning to
translate printed words into spoken words with ease.


Dyscalculia


A person with dyscalculia
has average to above average intelligence, but has difficulty with numbers or
remembering facts over a long period of time. Some persons have spatial
problems and difficulty aligning numbers into proper columns. Some persons may
reverse numbers, and have difficulty in mathematical operations.


Dyspraxia


A person with dyspraxia
has problems with messages from the brain being properly transmitted to the
body. Though the muscles are not paralyzed or weak, they have problems working
well together. Dyspraxia might also cause speech problems, poor posture, poor
sense of directions, and/or difficulty with actions such as throwing and
catching.


Auditory Perceptual
Deficit


A person with auditory
perceptual deficit has difficulty receiving accurate information from the sense
of hearing (there is no problem with the individual's hearing, just in how the
brain interprets what is heard) and might have problems understanding and
remembering oral instructions, differentiating between similar sounds, or
hearing one sound over a background noise.




Visual Perceptual Deficit


The individual has
difficulties receiving and/or processing accurate information from their sense
of sight; might have a problem picking out an object from a background of other
objects or seeing things in correct order.


What causes learning disabilities?


Experts have not been
able to pinpoint specific medical causes for learning disabilities. Learning
disabilities are not caused by economic disadvantage, environmental factors or
cultural differences. In fact, according to the National Center for Learning
Disabilities (2006a), there is frequently no apparent cause for learning
disabilities. However, much research points to heredity, problems during the
mother's pregnancy, or incidents after birth such as head injuries, nutritional
deprivation, and exposure to toxic substances.


Only qualified
professionals who have been trained to identify learning disabilities can
perform a formal evaluation to diagnose learning disabilities. Such
professionals may be clinical or educational psychologists, school
psychologists, neuro-psychologists, or learning disabilities specialists.
Adults who suspect they have learning disabilities should seek out professional
who have training or direct experience working with and evaluating adults with
learning disabilities (National Center for Learning, 2006b). To find qualified
professionals and other learning disabilities resources in any state, visit the
NCLD's Resource Locator.


Learning Disabilities and
the Americans with Disabilities Act


Is a learning disability a disability under
the ADA?


The ADA does not contain
a list of medical conditions that constitute disabilities. Instead, the ADA has
a general definition of disability that each person must meet (EEOC, 1992).
Therefore, some people with learning disabilities will have a disability under
the ADA and some will not.


A person has a disability
if he/she has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or
more major life activities, a record of such impairment, or is regarded as
having such impairment (EEOC, 1992). To be a disability covered by the ADA, the
impairment must substantially limit one or more major life activities. These
are activities that an average person can perform with little or no difficulty.
Examples are: walking, seeing, speaking, hearing, breathing, learning,
performing manual tasks, caring for oneself, and working. These are examples
only. Other activities such as sitting, standing, lifting, or reading are also
major life activities (EEOC, 1992).


Most courts have agreed
with the activities listed by the EEOC. For example, in Brown v. Cox Medical
Centers, 286 F.3d 1040 (8th Cir. 2002), the court noted that the "ability
to perform cognitive functions" is a major life activity. In Gagliardo v.
Connaught Laboratories, Inc., 311 F.3d 565 (3d Cir. 2002), the court held that
"concentrating and remembering (more generally, cognitive function)"
are major life activities (Fram, 2004).


For more information
about how to determine whether a person has a disability under the ADA, visit
the DSPS office.


Accommodating Students
with Learning Disabilities


(Note: People with
learning disabilities may develop some of the limitations discussed below, but
seldom develop all of them. Also, the degree of limitation will vary among
individuals. Be aware that not all people with learning disabilities will need
accommodations and many others may only need a few accommodations. The
following is only a sample of the possibilities available.


Accommodation Ideas


Reading


People with learning
disabilities may have limitations that make it difficult to read text. Because
it can be difficult to visually discern letters and numbers, these characters
may appear jumbled or reversed. Entire words or strings of letters may be
unrecognizable.


Reading from a paper
copy:



  • Convert
         text to audio

  • Provide
         larger print

  • Double
         space the text on print material

  • Use color
         overlays (Irlen lenses) to help make the text easier to read

  • Provide
         materials that are type-written, in a font that is not italicized; if
         handwritten material must be provided, use print, not cursive

  • Have
         someone read the document aloud to the individual

  • Scan the
         documents into a computer and use Optical Character Recognition (OCR),
         which will read the information aloud

  • Use a
         reading pen, which is a portable device that scans a word and provides
         auditory feedback


Reading from a computer
screen:



  • Use voice
         output software, also called screen reading software, which highlights and
         reads aloud the information from the computer screen

  • Use
         form-generating software that computerizes order forms, claim forms,
         applications, equations, and formula fields

  • Use manual
         or electric line guide to help individuals "keep their place" on
         the computer monitor

  • Alter
         color scheme on computer screen to suit the individual's visual
         preferences

  • Adjust the
         font on computer screen to suit the individual's visual preferences


Spelling


People with learning
disabilities might have difficulty spelling, which can manifest itself in
letter reversals, letter transposition, omission of letters or words, or
illegible handwriting.



  • Allow use
         of reference materials such as dictionary or thesaurus

  • Provide
         electronic and talking dictionaries

  • Use word
         prediction software that displays a list of words that typically follow
         the word that was entered in a document

  • Use word
         completion software that displays sample words after someone starts typing
         part of a word

  • Allow
         buddy, coworker, or supervisor to proofread written material


Writing


People with learning
disabilities might have difficulty with the cognitive or the physical process
of writing.


Cognitive process of
writing: People with learning disabilities might have difficulty organizing a
written project, identifying themes or ideas, structuring sentences or
paragraphs, or identifying and/or correcting grammar errors.



  • Use
         Inspiration software, a computerized graphic organizer

  • Use Texthelp
         Read & Write Gold, a software program assisting with spelling,
         reading, and grammar.

  • Provide
         electronic/talking dictionaries and spellcheckers

  • Create
         written forms to prompt the writer for information needed

  • Allow the
         individual to create a verbal response instead of a written response

  • Permit use
         of reference books such as a thesaurus or dictionary


Physical process of
writing: People with learning disabilities may have difficulty with the
physical process of writing. It may be difficult to fill in blanks, bubble in
dots, line up numbers or words in a column, on a line, or within a margin.
Handwriting may be illegible.



  • Provide
         writing aids

  • Use line
         guides and column guides

  • Supply
         bold line paper

  • Permit
         type-written response instead of hand-written response

  • Allow use
         of personal computers, including Alpha Smart, Palm, tablet PC, and
         Blackberry

  • Use
         Inspiration software, a computerized graphic organizer

  • Use speech
         recognition software that recognizes the user's voice and changes it to
         text on the computer screen


Mathematics


A person with a learning
disability could have difficulty recognizing or identifying numbers,
remembering sequencing of numbers, understanding the mathematical sign or
function (whether symbol or word) or performing mathematical calculations
accurately and efficiently.



  • Use
         scratch paper to work out math problems

  • Permit use
         of fractional, decimal, statistical, or scientific calculators

  • Provide
         talking calculator

  • Use
         calculators or adding machines with large display screens

  • Use construction
         calculator, such as Jobber 6

  • Provide
         talking tape measure

  • Use
         talking scales

  • Use
         pre-measurement guides or jigs

  • Post
         mathematical tables at desk  


Organizational Skills


A person with a learning
disability may have difficulty getting organized or staying organized.



  • Reduce
         clutter in work area

  • Purchase
         an organizer

  • Use
         color-code system to label or identify materials

  • Use
         calendars (paper, electronic, or both) to remind of deadlines, meetings,
         upcoming tasks

  • Build
         organization skills by attending time management workshops, like those
         offered by Franklin Covey

  • Build
         organization skills through self-education at sites like mindtools.com


Memory


A person with a learning
disability could have memory deficits that affect the ability to recall something
that is seen or heard. This may result in an inability to recall facts, names,
passwords, and telephone numbers, even if such information is used regularly.



  • Provide
         checklists to help remember tasks

  • Use
         flowchart to describe steps to a complicated task (such as, logging into a
         computer, etc)

  • Safely and
         securely maintain paper lists of crucial information such as passwords

  • Prompt individual
         with verbal or written cues

  • Allow student
         to use voice activated recorder to record verbal instructions


Time Management


A person with a learning
disability may have difficulty managing time. This can affect the person's
ability to organize or prioritize tasks, adhere to deadlines, maintain
productivity standards, or work efficiently.



  • Make to-do
         lists and check items off as they are completed

  • Use
         calendars to mark important meetings or deadlines

  • Divide
         large assignments into smaller tasks and goals


Social Skills


People with learning
disabilities may have difficulty exhibiting appropriate social skills on the
job. This may be the result of underdeveloped social skills, lack of
experience/exposure in the workforce, shyness, intimidation, behavior
disorders, or low self-esteem. This can affect the person's ability to adhere
to conduct standards, work effectively with peers, or interact with professors


Behavior:



  • To reduce
         incidents of inappropriate behavior, thoroughly review student code of conduct
         policy with student

  • Provide
         concrete examples to explain inappropriate behavior

  • Provide
         concrete examples to explain consequences in a disciplinary action

  • To
         reinforce appropriate behavior, recognize and reward appropriate behavior


Professors should:



  • Provide
         detailed guidance and feedback

  • Offer
         positive reinforcement

  • Provide
         clear expectations and the consequences of not meeting expectations

  • Give
         assignments verbally, in writing, or both, depending on what would be most
         beneficial to the student


RESOURCES:     


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 




      











There are numerous products that can be
used to accommodate people with limitations. JAN's Searchable Online
Accommodation Resource (SOAR) at http://www.jan.wvu.edu/soar
is designed to let users explore various accommodation options. Many product
vendor lists are accessible through this system; however, upon request JAN
provides these lists and many more that are not available on the Web site.





References



Equal Employment
Opportunity Commission. (1992). A technical assistance manual on the employment
provisions (title I) of the Americans with Disabilities Act. Retrieved October
28, 2005, from http://www.jan.wvu.edu/links/ADAtam1.html



Fram, David. (2004).
Resolving ADA workplace questions: How courts and agencies are dealing with
employment issues. National Employment Law Institute Publication, 17th edition.


National Center for
Learning Disabilities (2006a). Fact sheet: LD at a glance. Retrieved February
27, 2006, from http://www.ncld.org/index.php?option=content&amptask=view&ampid=448



National Center for
Learning Disabilities (2006b). Fact sheet: Living with LD. Retrieved February
27, 2006, from http://www.ncld.org/content/view/360/342/


National Institute of
Neurological Disorders and Stroke. NINDS learning disabilities information
page. Retrieved February 27, 2006, from http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/learningdisabilities/learningdisabilities.htm


Kitchen, S (2006, 02 01). Accommodation and
Compliance Series: Employees with Learning Disability, Job Accommodation
Network





 

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ساعات الإستشارات النفسية والتربوية

تجول عبر الانترنت

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موعد تسليم المشروع البحثي

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معايير تقييم المشروع البحثي الطلابي



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ندوة الدور الاجتماعي للتعليم

 

حالة الطقس

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الساعات المكتبية


التميز في العمل الوظيفي

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(التميز في العمل الوظيفي)

برنامج تدريبي مقدم إلى إدارة تعليم محافظة الغاط – إدارة الموارد البشرية - وحدة تطوير الموارد البشرية يوم الأربعاء 3/ 5 / 1440 هـ. الوقت: 8 ص- 12 ظهرًا بمركز التدريب التربوي (بنات) بالغاط واستهدف قياديات ومنسوبات إدارة التعليم بالغاط

تشخيص وعلاج التهتهة في الكلام

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حملة سرطان الأطفال(سنداً لأطفالنا)

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اليوم العالمي للطفل

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المهارات الناعمة ومخرجات التعلم


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المهارات الناعمة

المهارات الناعمة مفهوم يربط بين التكوين والتعليم وبين حاجات سوق العمل، تعتبر مجالاً واسعاً وحديثا يتسم بالشمولية ويرتبط بالجوانب النفسية والاجتماعية عند الطالب الذي يمثل مخرجات تعلم أي مؤسسة تعليمية، لذلك؛ فإن هذه المهارات تضاف له باستمرار – وفق متغيرات سوق العمل وحاجة المجتمع – وهي مهارات جديدة مثل مهارات إدارة الأزمات ومهارة حل المشاكل وغيرها. كما أنها تمثلالقدرات التي يمتلكها الفرد وتساهم في تطوير ونجاح المؤسسة التي ينتمي إليها. وترتبط هذه المهارات بالتعامل الفعّال وتكوين العلاقات مع الآخرينومن أهم المهارات الناعمة:

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مهارات التفكير الناقد

مهارات الفكر الناقد والقدرة على التطوير من خلال التمكن من أساليب التقييم والحكم واستنتاج الحلول والأفكار الخلاقة، وهي من بين المهارات الناعمة الأكثر طلبا وانتشارا، وقد بدأت الجامعات العربية تضع لها برامج تدريب خاصة أو تدمجها في المواد الدراسية القريبة منها لأنه بات ثابتا أنها من أهم المؤهلات التي تفتح باب بناء وتطوير الذات أمام الطالب سواء في مسيرته التعليمية أو المهنية.

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الصحة النفسية لأطفال متلازمة داون وأسرهم

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لا للتعصب - نعم للحوار

يوم اليتيم العربي

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موقع يساعد على تحرير الكتابة باللغة الإنجليزية

(Grammarly)

تطبيق يقوم تلقائيًا باكتشاف الأخطاء النحوية والإملائية وعلامات الترقيم واختيار الكلمات وأخطاء الأسلوب في الكتابة

Grammarly: Free Writing Assistant



مخرجات التعلم

تصنيف بلوم لقياس مخرجات التعلم

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التعلم القائم على النواتج (المخرجات)

التعلم القائم على المخرجات يركز على تعلم الطالب خلال استخدام عبارات نواتج التعلم التي تصف ما هو متوقع من المتعلم معرفته، وفهمه، والقدرة على أدائه بعد الانتهاء من موقف تعليمي، وتقديم أنشطة التعلم التي تساعد الطالب على اكتساب تلك النواتج، وتقويم مدى اكتساب الطالب لتلك النواتج من خلال استخدام محكات تقويم محدودة.

ما هي مخرجات التعلم؟

عبارات تبرز ما سيعرفه الطالب أو يكون قادراً على أدائه نتيجة للتعليم أو التعلم أو كليهما معاً في نهاية فترة زمنية محددة (مقرر – برنامج – مهمة معينة – ورشة عمل – تدريب ميداني) وأحياناً تسمى أهداف التعلم)

خصائص مخرجات التعلم

أن تكون واضحة ومحددة بدقة. يمكن ملاحظتها وقياسها. تركز على سلوك المتعلم وليس على نشاط التعلم. متكاملة وقابلة للتطوير والتحويل. تمثيل مدى واسعا من المعارف والمهارات المعرفية والمهارات العامة.

 

اختبار كفايات المعلمين


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