Dr. Mona Tawakkul Elsayed

Associate Prof. of Mental Health and Special Education

Screening Activiti


Screening Activities


A.    Overview

1.     An LEA shall identify a student, enrolled in an educational program operated by the LEA, as suspected of having a disability only after the student has participated in an RTI process that produces data sufficient for the SBLC to recommend that a comprehensive individual evaluation be conducted by pupil appraisal personnel. For a student suspected of having a communication disorder, follow the screening activities in §305.D.1-3. For a child not enrolled in school, screening activities are to be conducted by Pupil Appraisal personnel. Through the RTI process the SBLC shall coordinate and document results of all screening activities described below. RTI and screening activities for enrolled students (public and private) are conducted by general education personnel with assistance from other school personnel and pupil appraisal members, if necessary.


2.     The screening of a student by a teacher or specialist to determine appropriate instructional strategies for curriculum implementation shall not be considered to be an evaluation for eligibility for special education and related services.


B.    Sensory Screening


1.     Hearing Screening


a.     Hearing screening shall be conducted unless the following three conditions are true.


               i.       Normal screening results have been obtained within the past 24 months for enrolled students and within the past 12 months for non-enrolled students.


              ii.       No hearing problems are currently being exhibited by the student.


             iii.       There is no history of acute or chronic ear infections or persistent head colds indicated in the health screening.


b.     The student is considered "at-risk" of having a hearing impairment when one of the following conditions exist:


               i.       failure to respond at 20db in one of 1000 Hz, 2000 Hz or 4000 Hz frequencies in at least one ear;


              ii.       failure to respond at 25db in two or more frequencies in at least one ear;


             iii.       middle ear pressure outside the range of ‑200 and +50 mm H2O in either ear; or


             iv.       excessively stiff or flaccid tympanogram in either ear.


c.     Students for whom specific audiometric test results cannot be obtained because of age or degree of involvement or for whom informal hearing test results do not rule out the possibility of a hearing loss should be considered "at risk." The extent of the student’s hearing loss must be determined, using electrophysiological techniques when necessary.


2.     Vision Screening


a.     Vision screening shall be conducted unless the following three conditions are true.


               i.       Normal screening results have been achieved within the past 24 months for enrolled students and within the past 12 months for non-enrolled children.


              ii.       No vision problems are currently being exhibited by the student.


             iii.       There is no history of eye infections, either acute or chronic, indicated in the health screening.


b.     A student's vision is considered "at risk" as dictated by the criteria in the manual of the instrument used for testing. Vision screening must include tests for the following three conditions:


               i.       acuity (near point and far point);


              ii.       color blindness; and


             iii.       muscle balance.


c.     When the required techniques are unsuccessful because of the student's immaturity, physical impairment, or mental ability, adapted methods of testing shall be used to determine the extent of the loss.


3.     Sensory Processing Screening


a.     Sensory processing screening is conducted to determine if a student is "at risk" for sensory processing difficulties. (Refer to the Sensory Processing Screening Checklist in the Appendix for further guidance.) Sensory processing concerns may include the following:


               i.       visual symptoms;


              ii.       auditory symptoms;


             iii.       tactile symptoms;


             iv.       vestibular (balance) symptoms;


              v.       olfactory (smell) symptoms;


             vi.       gustatory (taste) symptoms;


            vii.       proprioceptive (movement) symptoms;


           viii.       motor planning difficulties; or


             ix.       attention/arousal difficulties.


C.    Health Screening


1.     Health screening is conducted to determine the health status of the student.


2.     A student's health is considered "at risk" if through history, observation, or other procedures, health concerns are noted.


D.    Speech and Language Screening


1.     Speech and language screening is conducted by a speech-language pathologist unless the following four conditions are true as documented by a teacher-completed checklist of communication skills.


a.     The student exhibits normal voice quality.


b.     The student speaks with normal rate and fluency.


c.     The student's articulation skills appear normal with respect to age and social/cultural factors.


d.     The student's overall receptive and expressive language skills appear adequate with respect to age and social/cultural factors.


2.     The tasks, items, or tests used in screening should include a sampling to determine the following pertinent skills or conditions:


a.     auditory processing skills (e.g., reception, discrimination);


b.     articulation;


c.     receptive and expressive language;


d.     voice;


e.     fluency;


f.     oral motor functioning; and


g.     oral structure.


3.     If the student’s communication skills are "at risk," evidence-based interventions shall be conducted by a speech-language pathologist or other appropriate personnel with fidelity and for the length of time necessary to obtain sufficient data to determine their effectiveness. Informed parental consent must be obtained before conducting these interventions. In the case of a suspected voice impairment, there must also be an assessment conducted by an appropriate medical specialist prior to implementing the interventions.


E.    Motor Screening


1.     Motor screening is accomplished through the observation of the student's gross and fine motor skills by the teacher responsible for providing physical education to the student and, if necessary, in consultation with the teacher responsible for classroom-based activities. The evaluation coordinator shall ensure that motor screening is conducted by pupil appraisal personnel during the evaluation for students not enrolled in school.


2.     A student's gross or fine motor skills are considered "at risk" if the screening results indicate concerns in the following areas:


a.     lack of strength, endurance, flexibility;


b.     difficulty with balance activities;


c.     failure to show opposition of limbs when walking, sitting, or throwing;


d.     lack of control with ball skills;


e.     difficulty in crossing the vertical midline;


f.     poor sense of body awareness; or


g.     difficulty in demonstrating motor sequences.


F.     Assistive Technology Screening


1.     Assistive Technology screening is conducted through an observation of the student's skills and educational environment. (See Appendix for the Louisiana Assistive Technology Screening Checklist for further guidance.)


2.     A student's functional capabilities should be considered "at risk" if the screening results indicate concerns in the following areas:


a.     physical functioning/motor abilities;


b.     fine motor skills;


c.     communication functioning;


d.     vision/hearing;


e.     academic functioning;


f.     recreation and leisure;


g.     vocational functioning;


h.     general health; or


i.      self-help.


G.    Social/Emotional/Behavioral Screening


1.     Social/emotional/behavioral screening should include, at a minimum, a review of:


a.     incident reports/discipline records;


b.     teacher reports;


c.     parent reports and information provided by the parent;


d.     developmental profiles;


e.     previous behavior intervention plans; and


f.     anecdotal records.


2.     If a review indicates current concerns in the above areas, the student's social/emotional/behavioral status is "at risk." Documented, evidence-based intervention(s) appropriate to the student's age and behavioral difficulties shall be conducted with fidelity for the length of time necessary to obtain sufficient data to determine their effectiveness. Interventions are required for students with a suspected emotional disturbance unless there is substantial documentation that the student is likely to injure him/her self or others.


H.    Educational Screening


1.     Educational screening is accomplished by conducting:


a.     a review of the results of the student's educational history;


               i.       for a preschool-aged child not in school, a developmental screening shall be conducted by pupil appraisal personnel prior to or during the evaluation;


              ii.       for a preschool-aged child enrolled in school, a developmental screening shall be conducted by the student's teacher;


b.     a review of the student's academic performance, including dyslexia screening results and results of applicable statewide and district-wide tests;


c.     a summary of the teacher/parent communication regarding the student's specific difficulties or exceptional skills;


d.     a review of the results of universal screening, conducted by the teacher or other staff member, which enables school personnel to measure the performance of students as compared to peers within their class, school, and/or district; and


e.     a comprehensive and documented review of evidence-based intervention(s) conducted with fidelity and for the length of time necessary to obtain sufficient data to determine their effectiveness. Interventions should be appropriate to the student’s age and academic skill deficits:


               i.       interventions are required for students suspected of having Autism, Developmental Delay, Emotional Disturbance, Mild Mental Disability, Orthopedic Impairment, Other Health Impairment, and Specific Learning Disability. Interventions are not required for a preschool-aged child, a student suspected of being gifted or talented, or a student suspected of having a severe or low incidence impairment.


I.     Gifted and Talented Screening


1.     Gifted. Based on universal screenings that monitor student progress in the core curriculum, students functioning at the highest levels should be considered for gifted screening (refer to Chapter 9 for further screening requirements).


2.     Talented. Based on advanced skills demonstrated by the student in visual arts, music, or theatre, the student should be considered for talent screening (Refer to Chapter 9 for further screening requirements).


J.     Other Considerations


1.     The SBLC must provide data-based documentation that the student's lack of educational progress is not primarily due to:


a.     lack of appropriate, explicit and systematic instruction in reading which includes the essential components of reading instruction: phonics, phonemic awareness, fluency, comprehension, and vocabulary; (e.g., if more than 50 percent of the class falls below benchmark on universal screening, lack of appropriate instruction might be suspected);


b.     lack of appropriate instruction in math (e.g., if more than 50 percent of the class falls below benchmark on universal screening, lack of appropriate instruction might be suspected);


c.     limited English proficiency; (for students identified as English Language Learners, refer to Louisiana Guidelines for Identification and Instruction of English Language Learners with Disabilities for additional information);


d.     environmental or economic disadvantage (e.g., if a majority of low income students in the class fall below benchmark on universal screening, environmental or economic disadvantage as a primary factor might be suspected); or


e.     cultural factors (e.g., for students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, there is evidence that the school and classroom teacher have been sensitive toward the students’ diverse learning needs).


2.     When data indicate that the student is not responding to the intervention, the SBLC shall consider other options within the RTI process. The SBLC shall provide, at a minimum, evidence that a scientifically research-based intervention was implemented with fidelity, the student's progress was monitored at reasonable intervals, and the student's rate of progress relative to peers was not adequate.


3.     For students who are found to be "at risk" in any of the screening areas listed above, but are not suspected of having an exceptionality, the SBLC shall conduct interventions or refer the student to the appropriate specialist to address the concern.

4.         For students who are found to be "at risk" in any of the screening areas listed above and are suspected of having an exceptionality, the evaluation coordinator shall ensure that the screening areas determined to be "at risk" are addressed in the individual evaluation

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موعد تسليم المشروع البحثي

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المهارات الناعمة

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تصنيف بلوم لقياس مخرجات التعلم

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التعلم القائم على النواتج (المخرجات)

التعلم القائم على المخرجات يركز على تعلم الطالب خلال استخدام عبارات نواتج التعلم التي تصف ما هو متوقع من المتعلم معرفته، وفهمه، والقدرة على أدائه بعد الانتهاء من موقف تعليمي، وتقديم أنشطة التعلم التي تساعد الطالب على اكتساب تلك النواتج، وتقويم مدى اكتساب الطالب لتلك النواتج من خلال استخدام محكات تقويم محدودة.

ما هي مخرجات التعلم؟

عبارات تبرز ما سيعرفه الطالب أو يكون قادراً على أدائه نتيجة للتعليم أو التعلم أو كليهما معاً في نهاية فترة زمنية محددة (مقرر – برنامج – مهمة معينة – ورشة عمل – تدريب ميداني) وأحياناً تسمى أهداف التعلم)

خصائص مخرجات التعلم

أن تكون واضحة ومحددة بدقة. يمكن ملاحظتها وقياسها. تركز على سلوك المتعلم وليس على نشاط التعلم. متكاملة وقابلة للتطوير والتحويل. تمثيل مدى واسعا من المعارف والمهارات المعرفية والمهارات العامة.

 

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