Dr. Mona Tawakkul Elsayed

Associate Prof. of Mental Health and Special Education




The Imperative for the New Millennium

A White Paper by Pat Brogan

Using The Web For Interactive Teaching and Learning

Table of Contents

Meeting the Needs of Changing Society 1

The Changing Role of Education 1

Educational Outcomes Are Under Pressure 3

New Theories of Learning 5

The Constructionist View of Teaching and Learning 8

Teaching and Learning As Systems 9

The Role of Technology in Education 12

Computers and Learning Background 13

Computer-Based Instruction 15

Technology’s Role in Teaching and Learning Systems 15

Improvements in Productivity and Academic Results 16

The Effectiveness of Educational Technology 17

Online Learning and Teaching 17

Distance Learning 19

Distance Learning Research 20

Critical Success Factors for Distance Learning 21

Profiling Students for Success 22

Best Practices for Technology Implementation 22

Instructional Design Elements for Online Learning 23

The Benefits of Online Teaching and Learning 24

A Starting Point: Using Technology to Share Knowledge 26

Standards: Providing a Platform for Interoperability 28

Start Now! 30

The Macromedia Solutions 31

The Future 33

Bibliography 34

Meeting the Needs of Changing Society

Changes are taking place in the U.S. society at an exponential rate.

Traditional expansion of the U.S. economy was based on capital investments

that were made to build and automate factories. In recent times, the

white-collar work force increased by about 3x the rate of increase of the

blue-collar work force. The output of the U.S. economy shifted from capital

output to the services sector. Robert Reich, former secretary of Labor

and author of “The Work of Nations” describes the changes in the economy

as moving from an agrarian economy, to a mass production economy

and then to an economy where:

America’s core corporation no longer plans and implements the

production of a large volume of goods and services, it no longer

owns or invests in a vast array of factories, machinery, laboratories,

warehouses and other tangible assets; it no longer employs armies of

production workers and middle level managers, it no longer serves

as gateway to the American middle class. In fact, the core

corporation is no longer even American. It is, increasingly, a façade,

behind which teams an array of decentralized groups and

subgroups continuously contracting with similarly diffuse working

units all over the world. …the firms that are surviving and

succeeding are shifting from high volume to high value.

Reich points out that nearly 80 percent of the new jobs created in the

1980s were in services, and that some 70 percent of private sector employees

now work in service businesses. Between 1975 and 1990,America’s

500 largest industrial companies failed to create new jobs and their share

of the civilian work force dropped from 17% to 10%.The shift in jobs for

knowledge workers coincided with the advent of major technology adoption.

By 1994, over half the workers were using computers. It is questionable

which was the catalyst: the availability of the technology or the

change in work roles.

Reich describes three types of occupations for the future: those focused on

routine production, in-person service providers and what he calls symbolic

analysts, or knowledge workers. In 1980, the pay difference between someone

with a college degree and someone with only a high school education

was 50%. In 1998, the difference was 111% and increasing.The majority of

these jobs require Knowledge Workers.

The Changing Role of Education

The education system has been under a considerable amount of scrutiny

and received its share of criticisms. Our educational systems were architected

to deal with survival in a mechanistic society,where we taught people

to follow instructions—and work on farms or in factories. Work in the


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Today’s economy is based

on services not traditional

factory production.

The newly created jobs

require “Knowledge


In 2000, skilled jobs will

constitute 65% of the jobs,

a dramatic increase from

20% in 1950.

College grads now earn

111% more than noncollege


home was far more consuming and required a commitment to managing

aspects of family life that are quite different from those of today.The roles

of women and men evolved over periods of time with the life styles dictating

some of the work differences. But society has only recently offered

extended educational opportunities, such as a more in-depth variety of

graduate educational offerings and new associate degree offerings.We still

study language arts, history, geography, and sciences with little substantial

pedagogical changes. Schools have adapted with some electives, such as

changing from offering typing courses to computer courses.

The school based on the factory model doesn’t prepare students because

the relevant skills and attributes that students need to be successful in this

century and the next are not being addressed. Overly (in Caine&Caine,

1994 p. 15) describes the need for change:

As practiced, schooling is a poor facilitator of learning. Its persistent

view of learning as product interferes with significant learning connected

to such complex processes as inquiry and appreciation.What

often passes for education is noise that interrupts the natural flow of

learning. Schooling too often fragments learning into subject areas,

substitutes control for the natural desire to learn, co-opts na-turally

active children for hours in assembly line classroom struct-tures, and

ignores both individual and cultural differences...The

formal education system often destroys opportunities for learning

from elders, from each other and from the new generation.

Schools are having difficulty developing the requisite mastery in students

of the essential autonomous learning skills—the range of strategies, procedures,

and techniques that successful learners use inside the classroom,

while being instructed in traditional settings, and outside the classroom as

they learn from printed materials to search databases, write reports,work

on homework assignments, or study for tests. Some of these skills require

cognitive development: students need to learn on their own, students need

to integrate new knowledge into existing knowledge structures, and to

transfer the new knowledge structures to problem-solving in different situations.

The development of autonomous learning skills is the major challenge facing

higher education, because a student’s success in college, and in the

new knowledge economy, hinges in large measure, on the ability to master

new knowledge outside the security of the classroom.Teaching individuals

how to learn is the challenge faced by the nation as a whole as we negotiate

the difficult, momentous transition from the Industrial Age to the

Knowledge Age (Gifford, 1993).


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Educational Institutions

must respond to the needs

of the Knowledge Economy.

The bottom line is that students

want an education

that serves their needs. For

many that means an education

that is convenient,

accessible and most importantly,


Merrill Lynch, in their publication “The Book of Knowledge” (1999) summarizes

the changes in the educational environment in Table 1.

Old Economy New Economy

Four year degree Forty-year degree

Training as a cost center Training as #1 source of competitive advantage

Distance education Distributed learning

Correspondence & video High-tech multimedia centers

One size fits all Tailored programs

Geographic institutions Brand name universities & celebrity professors

Just in case Just in time

Isolated Virtual Learning communities

Table 1: Comparison of Education Trends in the “Old” and “New” Economies,

Source: Merrill Lynch, 1999

Educational Outcomes Are Under Pressure

There has been a significant gap in the desired educational outcomes in

society today, and the achievement results. In the widely publicized 1995

Gallup Poll, parents expressed their dissatisfaction with the content and

form of education their children are receiving, with 71% of American’s

grading the nation’s schools a C,D, or F (Lehman, 1997). Student achievement

in basic reading, writing and mathematics in the United States has

deteriorated over the past decade, putting the United States far behind

other nations in student skills mastery measurements.The problem effects

all segments of the economy—businesses can not hire employees with the

requisite skills thus requiring colleges to focus efforts on remediation

rather than teaching new skills.The competitiveness of our nation is put at

risk in a competitive global environment if our education system is judged


Data shows that 41% of students today entering college need some form of

remedial education.These students typically take at least three courses, and

may take a specific course three or four times.The National Center for Education

Studies (NCES), part of the U.S. Department of Education, reports

that the percentage of freshmen enrolled in remedial courses changed little

between 1989 and 1995. In math, data shows that only 6% of eleventh

graders can solve multi-step math problems or use basic algebra. Other

data show that over 20% of employees being hired by corporations today

lack basic reading and math skills.

The most recent estimates of remediation costs suggest that remediation

costs ,billion annually, though the recent report on remediation from Institute

for Higher Education indicates that the number is grossly understated,

and estimates it to be at least double the ,billion figure (NCES, 1998).


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The Wingspread Group, (1993, p.13) an education industry organization


The sad fact is that the campuses spend far more time and money

establishing the credentials of the applicants than they do of assesssing

the knowledge, skills and competencies of their graduates. Indeed,

the entire system is skewed in favor of the input side of the

learning equation: credit hours, library collections, percentage of

faculty with terminal degrees and the like. The output side of the

equation--student achievement--requires much greater attention than

it now receives. That attention should begin by establishing improved

measures of student achievement, measures that are credible

and valued by friends and supporters of education, by testing and

accrediting bodies, and by educational institutions themselves.

In today’s knowledge-based economy, society needs people who can think

critically and strategically to solve problems. Individuals must learn in a

rapidly changing environment, and build knowledge taken from new

sources and different perspectives.Today we must understand systems in

diverse contexts, and collaborate locally and around the globe using new

tools like the Internet (Reich, 1995; Merrill Lynch, 1999).These attributes

of learning contrast sharply with the low-level skills, content, and assessment

methods that traditional ways of learning favor. Belief that learning

takes place predominantly in the classroom and predominantly in children

is obsolete (Knowles, 1975, 1984; Cross, 1998).

Knowles’ (Knowles, 1984) work on how adults learn “andragogy” (as different

from pedagogy—referring to childrens’ learning) has evoked new discussions

about how and why people learn, along with challenging assumptions

that adults’ brains are not able to learn continually throughout life.

Andragogy makes the following assumptions about the design of learning:

(1) adults need to know why they need to learn something, (2) adults need

to learn experientially, (3) adults approach learning as problem-solving, and

(4) adults learn best when the topic is of immediate value.

In practical terms, andragogy means that instruction for adults needs to

focus more on the process and less on the content being taught. Strategies

using tools like case studies, role-playing, simulations, and self-evaluation

are recommended. Instructors adopt a role of facilitator or coach, rather

than lecturer or grader.

One problem is that most colleges are set up for the 18 to 22 year old students—

classes during the day, semesters and quarters starting two or three

times a year, and dormitories, no parking and programs that are now irrelevant

for over 50% of the students.The number of students over 25 has doubled

in the past twenty-five years (Merrill Lynch, 1999).


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Technology can “democratize”


instruction to people where

and when they need it.

50% of post-secondary

students are working

adults—over 6.1 million


Traditional views of people’s intelligence and capacity to learn are being

challenged.This provides us with a great opportuity to rethink how we

can deliver new forms of instruction by meeting the needs of a changing

society.Technology can play a key role in delivering new instructional content,

as well as new methods to reach those who must teach and learn.

New Theories of Learning

As we look at the changing needs of learners, it is important to track the

recent changes that have taken place in the learning theory domain.The

behaviorists’ views of learning as a product of controlled stimulus and

rewards has given way to a new view of cognitive and affective factors

which contribute to the overall learning process.There are new insights

into understanding how people learn in general, gender differences in

learning approaches, and how women and men learn with technology, and

the role attitudes and other affective factors play in the overall learning


In the cognitive area, new research on brain functions, as well as differences

in brain functionality by gender inform us of new implications in

teaching and learning. Different views on the definition of intelligence

have recently been posited by Sternberg, (1996); Goleman, (1996), Coles,

(1997) and Gardner, (1999). Sternberg (1996) challenges the traditional

paper and pencil approaches to measuring intelligence, finding that the

traditional intelligence tests does not measure “practical ability,” a person’s

ability to adapt to diverse conditions, and “creative intelligence.” Goleman

(1996) has identified “emotional intelligence” as an ability to read the signals

of others which is an intelligence he describes as needed to be a suc-


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Not all people learn the

same way or have the same

capacity for learning.

New forms of intelligence

need to be addressed in

instruction and assessment.

Adult Students Represent Nearly 50% of the Student Body










25 and Older 24 and Younger

1970 1995





cessful leader. Coles (1997) describes “moral intelligence” suggesting that

we should value character over intellect. Other forms of intelligence

described include leadership intelligence, executive intelligence and financial

intelligence (Gardner, 1999).

Gardner, (Gardner, 1983, 1989, 1993) founder of Project Zero at Harvard

University has done considerable research challenging traditional views of

intelligence. Gardner’s (1983) theories of multiple intelligences presents a

different view of learning differences, and the role that nature plays in creating

a biological preference. Gardner’s model of multiple intelligences has

had an impact on learning and teaching, and especially on curriculum

development (Chapman, 1993;Armstrong, 1994; Eisner, 1994; Maker, et. al.,

1994; Gray and Viens, 1994).The notion of multiple intelligences essentially

transforms the linear ranking of individuals on a single scale of abilities

that characterizes traditional IQ testing to a more complex and multidimensional

portrait of the specific strengths and weaknesses of individuals.

Gardner identifies the following “intelligences”:

• Musical

• Logical-mathematical

• Naturalistic

• Bodily kinesthetic

• Linguistic

• Spatial

• Interpersonal

• Intrapersonal

The implications for curriculum development and instruction are profound,

since it becomes clear that individuals with different intelligence

profiles will learn in different ways. Individuals should be encouraged to

use their natural intelligences in learning, and teachers should attempt to

understand students’ natural inclinations and position instructional activities

to appeal to different forms of intelligence. Gardner suggests that

assessment of learning should measure multiple forms of intelligence.

While there is agreement on this in concept, it will prove to be difficult to


Research on affective factors—attitudes and emotions and their contribution

to learning outcomes has shed new light on their role influencing

learning outcomes, playing an important role in shaping the learning experience.

Anxiety has been shown to impair performance in a wide range of

cognitive functions including attention, memory, concept formation and

problem solving (Sieber et al., 1977; Spielberger, 1966).There is an interaction

with task difficulty; anxiety results in poorer performance in complex

tasks but may improve performance on very simple tasks.Anxiety can be

dealt with constructively or unconstructively.

Confidence plays a significant role in creating a motivated learner. Confidence

can be built by creating the “aha” moments, where discovery of a

pattern, an answer or a relationship comes together.This allows the student


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Attitudes play an important

role in shaping teaching

and learning.

to experience “felt meaning.” Bruner (1967, p.20) calls this “test by affective

congruence.” It is the integration of the learned material into the knowledge

construct that provides for the deeper level of knowledge to occur. It

is the quest for understanding that helps the student build this into their

construct. People access passion when deep meanings are engaged (Caine

& Caine, 1994). Building confidence which builds motivation should be a

primary goal.

The implications of social aspects of learning have been explored in

research, and present an opportunity to learn how to better manage successful

outcomes using this knowledge.A newer concept is the view of the

brain as a social being (Gazzaniga, 1985).This is important in understanding

that learning can be optimized when learning takes place with others.

The model that assumes the teacher is the information giver and the student

a passive recipient is being challenged, as new beliefs in learning

through collaborative experiences and “doing” are being tested (Cross,


This collaborative view supports the belief that learning is a continual construction

project.This model moves past the information-processing model

of learning. People have a finite capacity of short-term memory, and longterm

memory depends on the processing and working of short-term memory.

Much information is processed unconsciously.The consequences are

that our focus becomes a tool and it needs to be nurtured and developed.

The learner uses the brain system to talk, listen, read, view, act and create

values. Creating learning environments that engage these different aspects

of the brain as part of the learning process will result in a more complete

learning experience.The opportunity to build new collaborative learning

environments is warranted based on the research that shows that students

actually learn better while doing, and learn more when they are actively

engaged in their learning.Technology can play a key role in facilitating collaboration.

Another area receiving focus is the research on learning styles. Dunn,

(1999) shows that individuals have a different preference for how they

learn, and that when they are introduced to material which is presented in

their preferred learning style, students perform better. Much of the research

on reading styles and learning and creative/perceptual styles was

built upon research with a left/right brain theoretical foundation. Preferences

affecting learning styles are expressed in the basis of moods, sleeping

needs, creative peak times, sensory diversity, developmental factors, physical

health, etc. (Caine & Caine, 1994).The knowledge that different people

learn differently is important to factor into the creation of teaching and

learning environments. In the typical classroom model, it is difficult for

teachers to accommodate different approaches to learning.

New information about biological learning differences has created additional

awareness of the needs of individuals, and has put tremendous pressure

on the institutions to find funding to provide equitable education.With as


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Students learn more when

they collaborate with others.

many as 20% of the students having brain-based learning differences like

attention deficit disorder (ADD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

(ADHD), autism and other differences, new models where instruction can

be personalized to meet the learners’ needs is available today through technology.

One example is the Scientific Learning program, Fast ForWord®

(http://www.fastforward.com).With over 8 million students having difficulty

learning to read, and another 8 million more who are poor readers, technology

now offers a form of help never previously available. Fast ForWord

is a revolutionary language training program which improves language

skills by combining progressive computer based technology with breakthroughs

in neuroscience.The training focuses on improving phonological

and receptive auditory skills—a unique approach that moves well beyond

addressing the symptoms of language problems, and directly attacks the

root cause.The success that has been achieved in the past five years with

programs like this provides a tremendous opportunity to help people who

might have been lost in the past. Research shows that many students with

learning and behavioral disorders who don’t get help end up in jail, on the

streets, and frequently live shorter lives.

The Constructionist View of Teaching and Learning

In the second half of the twentieth century, the most popular approach to

teaching and learning has been associated with the constructivists’ theory.

This dominant contemporary theory is built upon work done by Piaget,

Vygotsky, and Seymour Papert. In the constructivist’s view, the learner is an

active organism within the environment, not just responding to stimuli, but

engaging, grappling, seeking to make sense of things. Knowledge is generated

internally, not absorbed from an external source. Constructivists view

motivation as intrinsic, not a product of the behaviorist’s rewards and punishments


This constructivist view calls for a focus on structured activities, not

objects (books, grades, and teachers), as is typical in today’s classroom.

Activities should be “learner centered” with students needing to be agents

in the construction of their own learning. Interaction with others is a critically

important part of the socialization process, which supports learning.

Vygotsky suggests creation of the “zone of proximal development” where

students are provided a framework for continually stretching their academic

talents to the next level, within a scaffolded context—with scaffolding

coming from the learning support structure—teachers, instructional materials,

other students, etc.

Expectations and outcomes are different in a constructivist learning environment

than those found in the traditional classroom.Therefore, testing

procedures must be redesigned to compensate for the expanded knowledge

base that the student is developing.Testing for surface knowledge

excludes much of the contextual learning.


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Technology can provide

learning alternatives for

many traditionally “disadvantaged”


This prompts us to look at assessment methods and tools more closely.

Assessment programs today tend to measure surface knowledge, rather

than meaningful knowledge. Surface knowledge includes memorization of

facts, procedures and information that can be easily categorized. It is like

information that can be programmed, such that a robot could master the

information in the form of “data.” Meaningful knowledge is anything that

makes sense to the learner. It consists of more than just sticking bits of

data together. It is the result of the brain’s making linkages or “patterns that

connect” (Bateson, 1980).

The testing programs that assess skills that are useful only in school are

being challenged. Standardized testing is increasing, along with the emphasis

on test scores and measuring for accountability.While the trends are to

measure more to ensure more learning, the measurements are focusing on

surface knowledge which is not indicative of the type of learning that is

needed for the new economy. Normative assessment programs are typically

built upon assessment engines that test lower order thinking—fact and formulae

memorization which can be measured by multiple-choice tests.

These tests typically are limited to the types of learning—and even intelligence

that can be measured.

Teaching and Learning As Systems

The second half of this century has evoked new analyses of systems, with

the research on systems theories.The recent perspective of looking at

institutions as “educational systems” presents an opportunity to rethink the

concepts of teaching and learning—as a system.A system can be viewed as

an abstract model which “explains” some aspect of the world and rules for

its operation. It defines a set of elements that has an identity. It is distinguished

from the rest of the world by boundaries (definitions). It identifies

the relations among sets of elements—learners, instructors, content, etc. It

provides a framework for the rules that govern these relations over time or

form.These rules deal with the causes, the explanations of why and how

something is or comes into being in a particular way at a particular time

and place.A system is an entity that as a whole has qualities which are different

from those of its parts.

Systems thinking encourages the view that events happen in a non-linear

fashion. One analogy is the straw that breaks the camel’s back.All of the

events that led to the straw breaking the camel’s back contributed to the

break—the straw can’t be attributed as the only cause. Our typical inclination

to solve problems is by first labeling, describing, and categorizing the

elements of the problem.We then look at historical patterns and data to

diagnose causes and predict future events. In the system’s theory perspective,

the ability to see the patterns and relationships of a whole system is

critical—as is mastering the ability to reject the need for isolating specific



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New forms of assessment

must be developed to

match new learning goals

and instructional methods.

Systems thinking, a derivative of Systems Theory is a relatively new concept

which received focus in 1956 when J.W. Foster at MIT began to apply

the knowledge he gained from his work in electromechanical research

towards management of corporate environments. Senge brought the concept

of systems thinking into practice in the last twenty years, with his

book “The Fifth Discipline” (Senge, 1991). Senge defines systems thinking

as a discipline for seeing wholes, recognizing patterns and interrelationships,

and learning how to structure those interrelationships in more

effective, efficient ways (Senge, P.,& Lannon-Kim, C., 1991).As in any system,

the analysis of the individual components’ role in the system is discouraged.

When looking at the educational system as a whole, one can gain a better

understanding of the contributing factors to success. Most research on

education has evaluated students as individual learners, and attempted to

identify specific causes related to outcomes—or has evaluated teaching

and the effect on classes of students. Rarely is the teaching and learning

environment evaluated as a system.

Benjamin Bloom (1984) pioneered work to isolate the specific effects of

learning outcomes, with research that was structured to include changing

variables to understand the implications of these changes. He describes the

following components that contribute to the overall learning environment,

as well as identifying relative importance of the effect of each factor:

• Tutorial Instruction

• Reinforcement

• Feedback-corrective

• Cues and Explanations

• Student classroom participation

• Student time on task

• Improved reading/study skills

• Cooperative Learning

• Homework (graded and assigned)

• Classroom Morale

• Initial Cognitive Prerequisites

• Home environment intervention

• Peer and cross age remedial tutoring

• Higher order questions

• New Science and Math curricula

• Teacher expectancy

• Peer group influence

• Advanced organizers

• Socio-economic status (for contrast)

While these do represent elements of a teaching and learning system, they

need to be evaluated as a system, and not as individual components. Our

educational system is still caught up in a highly reductionistic and fragmented

traditional way of thinking. Its entire thinking process is still


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Many factors contribute

to an overall learning


extremely sequential and hierarchical in nature.This form of thinking is so

focused on the individual processes that the very system which these

processes serve is invariably lost from view. Systems thinking, on the other

hand, acknowledges the interrelated nature of the various subsystems or

processes that constitute the whole (system). Sarason (1992 p. ) sums this

up in the following way:

What we call “education” is a complex network of interacting components,

constituents, and forces —in other words, a “system.”

Understanding “systems thinking” and “systems theory” will cer-tainly

enhance a change agent’s probability of causing important changes

in education. In fact, it is even considered by many to be

a requirement for change in education.

An integrated teaching and learning system is represented in the diagram


In the teaching and learning system described above, the process is depicted

as an interactive flow, starting with the filters influencing the course

goals, typically specified by the instructor or the department.These influence

the content to be taught, which may be linked to an assessment tool

which can better target the instructional content.The content can then be

presented with different methods: from textbooks, to computer based

instructional software, from teachers’ lectures, to other students’ input.


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Teacher influenced by:


Prior Knowledge

Capacity for Learning

Teaching Style

Attitude and Emotions

Sociological Factors

Learner influenced by:


Prior Knowledge

Capacity for Learning

Learning Style

Attitude and Emotions

Sociological Factors











These are then synthesized and filtered by the learner who has his or her

set of unique learning goals.The learner is influenced by many factors,

from previous knowledge, desire or fear of learning, the setting--including

location, time of day and other factors.Throughout this process are constant

feedback mechanisms.The teacher observes different students'

behaviors, and then may adjust the assessment or the content accordingly.

Formal assessment plays a role both in building the short term memorization

skills for basic learning, and can serve to evaluate mastery of specific

items. From assessment comes additional instruction, whose content and

form may change, based on the feedback and results.

There are projects underway such as the STACI (Systems Thinking and

Curriculum Innovations) whose goal is to take the Systems Thinking

approach to the classroom using simulation modeling software to teach

content knowledge and problem solving skills. Over 40 teachers are using

the Systems Thinking approach to teach learning (ETS, 1999).

If new methods of instruction can deliver improved outcomes, the impact

to individuals, institutions and society can be significant.The combination

of understanding new research in learning approaches and research in

instructional technology’s effectiveness using improvements in hardware

and software provides new opportunities to deliver highly interactive


The Role of Technology in Education

As the U.S. spends trillions of dollars implementing computer-based solutions,

the challenge is to ensure that those implementations really address

the needs for which the systems were acquired. Economic productivity is

typically measured in output, as measured in economic terms such as gross

domestic product (GDP).This focus is far more centered on businesses,

where the productivity gap of computers has been well-documented

(Strassman, 1985, 1998, 1997, Brynjolffson, and Landauer, 1995). In education,

millions of computers have been acquired and put into schools, with

productivity results that have also been difficult to measure. Information

technology accounts for almost 50% of all capital expenditures by corporations

yet only 2% of spending in school systems.

The ability to use technology opens new opportunities to explore ways to

teach and learn.The concept of using technology in learning isn’t new; the

format of the technology is just changing.Technology aids, ranging from

books, to slide rules, calculators, televisions and computers have supplemented

learning for years. Changes in technology have been at a non-linear

rate and now provide new options to deliver far more effective, personalized

instruction than in the past.Today’s generation of children are growing

up with a different expectation of technology’s role in their lives, with

the minimum acceptable level of graphical quality and interactivity being

driven from video games.


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Computers and Learning Background

The use of microcomputers expanded rapidly in all segments of the economy

during the 1980s. Between 1981 and the end of the decade American

schools acquired over two million microcomputers. Estimates are that the

number of schools owning computers increased from approximately 25

percent to virtually 100 percent (Lehman, 1997).

One consistent conclusion is that the key to successful implementation of

technology includes many factors: appropriate consideration for the use of

the technology, appropriate hardware and software, adequate training and

support. Research consistently shows that poor applications of technology

yield poor results across all sectors of the economy.The 1998 Study by the

Educational Testing Service (ETS) found that technology can play a positive

role in improving educational outcomes.

Despite the issues raised above, there is also no doubt that the educational

use of computer technology will increase.The use of the Internet opens

doors to learning opportunities that didn’t exist a decade ago.We keep

hearing about how schools must be wired to support the Internet.Arguments

for computer usage, such as that of Roger Shank, Director of The

Institute for Learning Sciences at Northwestern University demonstrate

one point of view. Shank argues (1995, p. 72) “for massive educational

change to occur in this country, the computer will have to be the medium

of change.” Computers can allow for individualized instruction, along with

allowing students to explore without fear of failure, and to use multiple

input structures (audio, video and text) in a way that works best for them.

There has been a great deal of research conducted during the 1970s,

1980s, and early 1990s on the effects of computer use on student achievement,

attitudes, and other variables, such as learning rate.This research covers

a wide range of topics, and computerized learning activities that supplement

conventional instruction; from the use of computers as sole

instructional mediums, to the use of computers for research,word processing

and for programming (Kulik & Kulik, 1984, 1987, 1994; Fitz-Gibbons,

1984 Bangert-Drowns, et al.,1985; Batey,1987; Grimes, 1977; Samson et


Much of the research is based on looking at the role of computer-aided

instruction, often called Computer-Based Instruction, or instructional software

(Kulik & Kulik, 1984, 1987). It is important to keep in mind that computer

based instruction is changing rapidly, and that the scope of studies

reviewed spans many different types of computer software (Gifford, 1999).

These types of software include drill and practice software which is typically

a “bolt on” to other curriculum, games, and some integrated learning

systems. Computer hardware processing power and costs have made rich

software unaffordable in many schools, so the quality of software used, and


Using The Web For Interactive Teaching and Learning

Computers are everywhere.

But are they being used


New methods for assessing

the “value” of technology

for learning need to be


the approaches used to acquire and deliver the software often compromise

the learning quality.Very few of the software programs evaluated in

these studies compare to the high quality of the software available today.

Today, one can buy a Pentium computer system, with high quality sound

and video for less than ,,000.This provides a robust system, which can

support full-motion video, audio, and powerful programs.While hardware

developments have progressed according to Moore’s Law (former IBM

research scientist), software has evolved in stages at a much slower pace.

Under Moore’s Law, the capacity of a computer chip doubles every 18

months. If software development tools had advanced with the same speed,

we would have smaller code bases, with tools that allowed for much easier

development (Lehman, 1997).

Over the past 20 years, there have been four different generations of

instructional software, following the availability of different operating systems.

First-generation products were text-based, typically running under

DOS. Second-generation products were built with rudimentary graphics

and typically provided practice functionality instead of instruction.Third

generation products were designed to deliver a rich-media learning experience—

typically via interactive CD-ROMs.These products included engaging

multi-media, such as interactive encyclopedias, which offered limited

instruction. Fourth-generation products are available now.These products

utilize audio, graphics, animation and text in a way that has been proven to

deliver increases in learning retention by stimulating both right and left

brain engagement.Animation and graphics, combined with programmed

logic allows software to “adapt” to user input, providing a richer learning

environment (Brogan, 1999).

Along with fourth generation instructional software is the advent of the

second generation of “teaching and learning systems.”Teaching and learning

systems are integrated “mediated learning” systems, which integrate

instructional software with an instructional management system.The management

system provides instructors and students the mediation to ensure

that the instructional content is presented in a manner optimized to the

student.The student is provided with a rich, personalized learning system,

configured based on feedback, assessments and profiling done in the management


A challenge for software developers is that most educational institutions

have a mixture of new and old technology, and they want to purchase software

that can run on more than one generation of PCs. Rich media-based

instruction, with extensive audio and video, typically proves incompatible

with institutional system compatibility goals.

The push for Web-based software is driving development of more fourthgeneration

software.This instruction uses audio, video and animation com-


Using The Web For Interactive Teaching and Learning

Mediated Learning provides

the integration of instructional

software, a management

system and traditional


bined with rich assessment tools and adaptive logic which creates personalized

learning plans. In addition to the interactive instruction, the robust

management systems deliver student and instructor feedback supplemented

by print materials, which in total provide a rich “mediated learning”


Computer-Based Instruction

Computer-based instruction has some benefits for both instructor and students

(Miller, 1990). Among the potential benefits are:

• Reduced learning time

• Reduced costs

• Instructional consistency

• More privacy

• Guided mastery of learning

• Increased retention

• Improved safety

• Increased motivation

• Multiple access

• Increased engagement

• Personalized feedback

Properly integrated instruction can have benefits, but can cause potential

issues if the technology isn’t well implemented.The research covering

computer aided instruction focuses mostly on reduced learning time and

increased retention. Some studies have demonstrated that computer-aided

instruction can be cost-effective (Jewitt, 1998). Few studies have looked at

the outcomes that affect individual learners: personalized instruction,

increased feedback and motivation. Part of the challenge in collecting this

information is that much of the data would optimally be collected through

observations and interviews.

Technology’s Role in Teaching and Learning Systems

In looking at teaching and learning as a system as depicted in the model

on page 11, one can see that technology can play an important role in

helping improve assessment methods, in the actual content and the content

delivery methods, and in addressing the learner's goals.

In the assessment area, technology can be used to:

• Assess prior knowledge

• Create a prescriptive learning plan

• Reinforce learning

• Provide immediate feedback

• Measure success


Using The Web For Interactive Teaching and Learning

Technology can be used in the content area to increase the size of the

library, to allow reuse of different components in different learning plans,

and to target the content to be presented in different ways, meeting the

needs of different learning styles.

Technology can play a key role in improving the delivery of instructional

content by:

• Presenting media in visual, graphical way using animation,

video and other forms of multimedia.

• Using audio to expand sensory input.

• Creating “learning by doing” exercises.

• Using adaptive programming logic, mapping to input and


• Offering learners the ability to control the pace and flow in a

non-threatening, patient manner.

• Providing a framework for collaboration for students and


• Managing the learning environment--tracking for instructors

providing immediate feedback on results.

• Teaching the “dirty work,” or rote instruction

• Offering instruction any place, any time.

Insructional software better addresses learners’ goals, by providing a prescriptive

learning plan, based on assessment tools, and learners’ performance.

Software can adapt to students' answers and patterns, providing

input based on specific responses. Learners can control the rate and pace

of instruction, and choose a method that best meets their individual preferences.

Improvements in Productivity and Academic Results

The most comprehensive reviews of research findings on the impact of

technology-mediated communication on learning have been carried out by

University of Michigan researchers Kulik & Kulik and their associates

(Bangert-Drowns, James Kulik and Kulik, 1984- 1987, 1991).The meta-analysis

of research has found that computer-mediated instruction consistently

improves learner productivity.These results include:

1. Students usually learn more in classes in which they receive

computer-based instruction.

2. Students learn their lessons in less time with computer-based


3. Students like their classes more when they receive computer


4. Students develop more positive attitudes towards computers

when they receive help from them in school.


Using The Web For Interactive Teaching and Learning

Other research has confirmed these findings.The research typically evaluated

second generation software, which was used in more of a drill and

practice mode, rather than to deliver customized, rich instruction.The

availability of rich learning environments offering teaching and learning

systems has not proven to be a financially sustainable business for software

companies, resulting in a real lack of quality instructional software.

The Effectiveness of Educational Technology

ETS (Educational Testing Service) conducted a multi-year analysis of the

use of technology in schools and found the following results in evaluating

the effectiveness of technology:

• Research generally agrees that drill-and-practice forms of

computer-based instruction are effective in producing

achievement gains in students.

• More pedagogically complex uses of educational technology

generally show more inconclusive results, yet many offer

promising and inviting educational vignettes.

• Many ongoing educational technology projects are in the

process of documenting and recording measures of student

motivation, academic outcomes, and other outcomes such as

increased skills in problem-solving and collaboration.

• Evaluations of educational technology are really evaluations

of instruction enabled by technoogy, and the outcomes are

highly dependent on the implementation of the instrucational


• Evaluations of educational technology applications must confront

a number of methodological problems, including the

need for measures other than standardized achievement tests,

differences among students in opportunity to learn, and differences

in starting points and program implementation.

• Effects of educational technology remain in the classroom to

influence many generatoins of students.

URL: http://www.ets.org/research/pic/cc-sum.html

(Source: ETS, Reprinted with permission.)

Online Learning and Teaching

“The brave new world of net delivered and assisted training is exciting

and real. Online Learning is not about taking a course and

putting it on the desktop. It is about a new blend of resources, interactivity,

performance support and structured learning activi-ties.”

—Elliott Masie, The Masie Center—The Technology and Learning


Online teaching and learning can be described as business or educational

instruction that is enhanced by the use of interactive multimedia authoring


Using The Web For Interactive Teaching and Learning

and production software, personal computers,Web and/or intranets, and

learning management systems for delivering instruction and tracking learner

results and other key training-related data.

Online teaching and learning systems enable learners to determine which

training modules they would like to take and in what order. Custom curriculum

plans can be developed based on a variety of characteristics,

including skill level, learning goals, and learning styles.“Mastery-based”

learning programs let the learning management system automatically

assign curriculum components so that learners don’t take training topics

in which they have already developed competency. Using an online learning

system, an institution can create a virtual campus in which learners,

instructors and others can collaborate.

Online learning environments have been deployed with success on college

campuses nationwide.The best implementation is the mediated learning

model, introduced in concept by Dr. Bernard Gifford, and implemented in

products delivered by Academic Systems.The Mediated Learning model is a

faculty-guided, learner-centered approach to instruction and learning that

takes advantage of the combined strengths of the instructor, the learner

and multimedia technology to create an individualized learning environment

and increase student academic achievement.

The mediated learning model preserves the core elements of the traditional

model of instruction—student, faculty, text—and it introduces a new element,

computer-mediated instruction assessment support.This model modifies

the role of each element of instruction so that the individual needs of

the student are addressed. Mediated Learning gives students better access

to additional learning resources, when they need them and at the level

they require. Faculty can optimize their limited time and energy and campuses

may gain more flexibility in the allocation of resources within their

department.With the inclusion of distributed learning options, institutions

can benefit in two ways: they can provide access to mediated instruction

to students who now no longer have to come to the computer lab on the

school’s mandated schedule, and they can better use their limited lab and

classroom capacity.

The benefits of providing an integrated teaching and learning environment

are extensive: increased pass-rates, increased student engagement and satisfaction,

flexibility in delivering content, more personalized instruction

based on assessments, and improved cost-effectiveness for the institution.

Extensive research using this fourth generation instructional system shows

impressive results in many areas: student engagement, higher pass rates,

teacher satisfaction and improved success in follow-on courses.

Results of mediated learning research can be found at



Using The Web For Interactive Teaching and Learning

Benefits of integrated teaching

and learning sytems include

increased pass rates,

increased student engagement

and satisfaction and

more personalized learning.

Over 200 campuses today

are conducting interactive

instruction using Academic

Systems’ Interactive Math

and English software.

Distance Learning

Distance learning has been available for many years, in different formats.

There has been a significant increase in the number of distance learning

programs, and the increase has been driven by both customers’ needs and

availability of newer approaches due to technology advances. Other pressures

are coming from outside the traditional institutional infrastructure.

New, for profit, Education Marketing Institutions (EMIs) such as the Apollo

Group are filling in the gaps that are being created by traditional institutions’

failures to respond to the needs of the market.Today, the University

of Phoenix is the leading institutional provider of education in the United

States, with some 61,000+ students enrolled, with over 9,000 enrolled in

their distance learning courses. Distance learning plays a key role in delivering

instruction. Distance learning now represents about 12% of higher

education enrollments (Green, 1998).

According to Keegan (1996), distance education is defined as the following

equation: distance education = distance teaching + distance learning

(Keegan, 1996).Keegan (1996) defines distance learning as the following


• Separation of teacher and learner which distinguishes it from

face-to-face lecturing;

• The influence of an educational organization which distinguishes

it from private study;

• The use of technical media to unite teacher and learner and

carry educational content;

• Provision of two-way communication so that the student may

benefit from and even initiate dialogue;

• The possibility of occasional meetings for both didactic and

socialization purposes; and

• Participation in an industrialized form of education.

The key differentiation in distance learning offerings is the level of interaction

and location and time.The implementation formats relate to different

generations of technology, spanning different time periods.These can be

divided into technology stages (Nipper, 1989):

1st generation: Low tech media characterized by no


Example: Radio or tape broadcast, textbooks sent to students

with minimal interaction by phone

2nd generation: Asynchronously interactive courses characterized

by delivery of broadcast (TV or radio) with call in

interactivity (during or after) either by phone, or email.

3rd generation: Characterized by web pages with online

syllabus, chat sessions offering real-time interaction, with

other static materials.

4th generation: Real-time interactivity with software, video

cameras, integrated management system.


Using The Web For Interactive Teaching and Learning

Distance Learning can cost

less and provide a wider

library of instruction to

more people.

In 2002, it is projected that

over 2.2 million “students”

will participate in a distance

learning course representing

a 33% compound

annual growth rate.

(Source: IDC)

Today’s courses are moving more and more towards third and fourth generation

modes.Among the enabling factors are: cost decreasing and availability

of technology increasing, financial and time support for extended

learning driven by the work environment, and the need for flexibility to

support more complex lives of students and faculty.

A fourth generation of distance teaching is being facilitated by higher

bandwidth computers and the Internet.Waggoner (1992) describes computer

interaction in the third generation of technology as exclusively


Another perspective is to look at distance learning as educational offerings

differing along two axes: time and location.The figure below represents

the two continuums. Each of the four models offer a different level of student

interactivity, ability to integrate rich media, opportunity to provide

feedback and tracking, customization and communication.

Distance Learning Research

There is learning that can be extracted from research on distance learning

courses offered using non-computer based methods, since that has been

the predominant distance learning mode for many years. Most of the studies

reviewed have compared delivery media types. Dublin and Tavaggia

performed a longitudinal study of various approaches used in college

teaching.They found that in 91 studies performed between 1921 and 1965

that there was “unequivocally no difference among truly distinctive methods

of college instruction when evaluated by student performance on final

exams” (Dublin and Tavaggia, 1968, P. 35).Thomas Russell (1999) published

an annotated bibliography called “The No Significant Difference Phenomenon,”

which lists hundreds of articles and research supporting the position

that attitudes and satisfaction of distance learning students are positive

as compared to traditional (typically classroom) approaches.

The key learning is that there are no significant negative differences in

learning outcomes.The expectation is that with the role of the faculty-student

interaction being minimized due to the lack of physical meeting, that

the learning outcome would be reduced.Additionally, because many people

who enroll in distance learning courses enroll due to the need for flexibility,

the courses have much higher drop out rates. So to have results that

show that student achievement isn’t compromised is actually positive.

Research shows that access to technology and courses is less important a

factor than quality access and training. Human factors are still critically

important—in a meta analysis, 40% of students say that they miss the faceto-

face interactions with instructors, and 25% say they miss the group



Using The Web For Interactive Teaching and Learning

Distance learning research

found that there can be

equivalent student success

in distance learning mode

as other modes.

Metcalfe’s Laws states

thats the cost of a network

expands linearly with

increases in network size

but the value of the network

increases exponentially.

Most of the distance learning studies focused on media type, and in many

cases relied on videotaped instruction as the main form of delivery of

instruction. In the past twenty years, technology has opened new opportunities

to provide an improved level of interactivity for distance learning.

Richard Clark (1983) states: The best current evidence is that media are

mere vehicles that deliver instruction but do not influence student

achievement any more than the truck that delivers our groceries causes

changes in our nutrition, only the content of the vehicle can influence

achievement (p. 445).

Olcott (1992) recently stated:“The research on student achievement is giving

way to greater emphasis on student attitudes toward technology, economic

analysis of ITV (instructional television), instructor effectiveness,

course design features, and learning theory applied to media-based learning”


Distance learning can cost less and provide a wider library of instruction

to people.This provides a foundation to apply technology to deliver the

“higher quality” learning environment.

Critical Success Factors for Distance Learning

Because it has been difficult to determine causation of success for programs,

it is difficult to state with certainty the requirements for successful

distance learning.Among the factors that can be controlled to support a

positive distance learning outcome are:

• Profiling of students and faculty who will be more likely to

succeed with this method.

• Developing and implementing best practices that support

technology solutions.

• Ensuring an adequate support structure allowing for communications

between faculty and students, students and students.


Using The Web For Interactive Teaching and Learning


Synchronous Asynchronous

• Traditional classroom

• 2-way video




• Correspondence

• Web-based courses

• Distributed mediated learning

Distance Learning Models


• Having a clear understanding of curriculum goal and setting

rigid pedagogical standards.

• Implementing productive instructional design to allow for

ease of use and increased productivity.

• Ensuring adequate teacher training and motivation to use this


Profiling Students for Success

It is important to understand that not all people are appropriate candidates

for using technology to teach and learn.The literature review of the

study by The Institute for Higher Education Policy (1999) concluded that

the following characteristics were correlated with student success.Technology

can play a role in profiling students who can do well using interactive

instruction and go the next step to deliver personalized instruction.

• Students who rated themselves highly on various measures of

persistence related to taking on new projects.

• Married students.

• Students who rate the consequences of not passing “serious.”

• Students who rate their chances of succeeding in their studies

higher than non-completers.

• Students who did not need support from others to complete

difficult tasks and did not find it important to discuss work

with other students.

• Students with high literacy levels.

• Students who rated themselves as well organized in terms of

time management skills and said they generally had the time

to do what they intended to do.

• Students who rated their formal and informal learning as high

in terms of preparing them for university studies.

• Female students.

Best Practices for Technology Implementation

There is a considerable amount of learning from computer-delivered

instructional lab environments that can be applied to distance learning.

Computer labs have been used for the past ten years to deliver instruction.

Critically important to the successful usage are:

• Ensuring that the hardware and software are installed and

tested prior to the class start.

• Planning for machine breakdowns—have backup machines

available for any information that must be made available to

students (management system,Web site, syllabus).

• Having technical support available during the hours students

are working, which typically for distance learning includes

early morning hours.

• Developing a contingency plan for technology failure—perhaps

a phone system which has information, or provide information

on CDs or other local media.


Using The Web For Interactive Teaching and Learning

Technology-based instruction

isn’t the solution for

everyone. At best it is

another option.

• Teachers must be well trained and have their support structure

in place.This includes ensuring that teachers are well

equipped to do email from mobile locations.

• Offering an orientation program, preferably using the same

instructional mode.

• Providing feedback processes to monitor success or failure,

and alternatives for those who are not able to deal well with


• Recognizing the technology base that students will be and

communicate systems requirements. For web environments,

understand browser install base and provide clear instructions

about supported operating environments.

Instructional Design Elements for Online Learning

The above best practices focus on the delivery of the instruction. Perhaps

even more important is the design and creation of the instructional material.

Knowledge of instructional design practices are critical to the successful

implementation distance of course material. Phipps (1999) suggests the

following guidelines for successful instructional design:

• Employ a high the level of interactivity to keep students


• Use multiple instructional methods to improve results.

• Provide a balance between virtual interaction and direct


• Provide a well thought-out user interface.

• Make the instructional navigation simple yet in support of

frequent and infrequent user types.

• Provide ongoing assessment and feedback to reinforce learning.

• Use audio, video and animation to support different learning

styles and optimize memory and brain utilization.

• Limit use of text to not overload screens. Students process

text on a display at a rate of about 30% less than that of

paper. Use graphics where possible.

• Let learners guide the instruction, but not get lost.

• Provide scaffolding to allow learners to fill in gaps of learning

through help systems, glossaries, and links to assessment and


• Provide options in support of differences in female and male

uses of technology.

• Ensure that the response time of the instructional environment

matches that of the learner as best possible.


Using The Web For Interactive Teaching and Learning

The Benefits of Online Teaching and Learning

The needs of a diverse population of learners can be met with a flexible

system that can educate employees anytime, anywhere.With new theories

of intelligence and learning, technology can be used to appeal to different

learning styles. Programming can be adaptive to create personal learning

plans.The linkage assessment tools which can diagnose and prescribe with

instructional content can deliver learning systems which can improve

learning results.

Research shows that students learn more when they can control the

course of their learning. Software can be architected with an understanding

that individuals differ in their learning preferences and paces.The

instructional software can provide a combination of audio, video and animation

to appeal to different learners’ styles. Students may repeat instructional

selections without feeling embarrassed.And teachers do not now

have to accommodate the slowest or fastest students. Students with motivation

or aptitude that is stronger or weaker than others may move ahead

at the pace that meets their needs.

In addition to supporting different learning styles software can be architected

to provide visual and auditory stimulation, based on research, which

shows that students learn and retain more when they use more than one

sense. Because interactivity is key to capturing students attention, software

can be designed to provide students with an engaging experience that

shows the importance of the subject matter, at the same time building

higher order thinking skills. This is accomplished by showing videos and

using animation to explain the history and applicability of key concepts.

According to dual coding theory information is processed through one of

two generally independent channels. One channel processes verbal information

such as text or audio.The other channel processes nonverbal

images such as illustrations and sounds in the environment. Information

can be processed through both channels.This occurs, for example, when a

person sees a picture of a dog and also processes the word “dog.” Information

processed through both channels is called referential processing and

has an additive effect on recall. Learning is better when the information is

referentially processed through two channels than when the information is

processed through only one channel. Referential processing may produce

this additive effect because the learner creates more cognitive paths that

can be followed to retrieve the information. Using audio with video can

promote engagement of multiple brain channels, resulting in increased



Using The Web For Interactive Teaching and Learning

Technology can provide

multiple ways of presenting

instruction, achieving higher

levels of retention.

William Glasser, an Educational Pyschologist describes the effectiveness of

different modes of learning:

What we read 10%

What we hear 20%

What we see 30%

What we see/hear 50%

What we discuss with others 70%

What we experience 80%

What we teach someone else 95%

This presents us the opportunities to learn through participating in many

of these different forms of the learning experience with the ultimate

engagement coming from a high level of collaboration. Research shows

that people learn better when they are encouraged to collaborate.

Software can be built to maximize the benefits of technology to allow the

computer to provide personalized and adaptive instruction and assessment.

Many students perform better with computer based feedback, which

reinforces positive learning, and provides them a supportive, patient environment

to help them work through areas where they lack understanding.

Online learning systems can be forgiving--students don't feel embarrassed

when they repeat learning segments. Developing instruction built on a

mediated learning approach, students can be involved in a software-guided,

step-by-step process of problem solving and receive immediate feedback.

Systems can be designed to give immediate positive reinforcement

important for mastering lower level skills.When students provide incorrect

answers, the software can be designed to provide a hint as to how to correctly

complete the problem based on logic built into the system that

understands where the student made the error. Students have the option

to go back to the different portions of the courseware to enhance their

understanding of any lesson at any time, thus allowing students to progress

at a rate with which they are comfortable.

Assessment programs can methodically capture data and administrative

tasks to ensure accurate records and compliance. Online learning simplifies

this process since data capture is automatic and courses can be reassigned

to learners when re-certification is required. Institutions can document

learner progress mastery for reimbursement purposes.

Systems can provide detailed feedback at many levels: pre-tests, practice

problems, evaluation scores, time on task, student progress reports, section

reports and more to both the teacher and the student.

The delivery of first generation Web-based instructional management systems,

as in PathwareTM 4 product provides a platform for integrating Webbased

instructional content.This system can inventory, deliver, track and

report student progress for many types of courses, and is not limited to


Using The Web For Interactive Teaching and Learning

Software can provide highly

interactive, personal


Technology is available

today to deliver integrated

teaching and learning systems.

The greatest form of mastery

is represented by

conveying knowledge to

someone else.

only Web-based instruction. New Web authoring tools like Authorware®

AttainTM and AttainTM Objects for DreamweaverTM provide non-programmers

the ability to easily create highly interactive instructional software

which can output various levels of data to the instructional management


Today some campuses are making available instructional CDs to students

to use outside the class laboratory, in a hybrid distance learning environment,

preserving the tracking information with the management system by

having students connect via the Internet, as in the Academic Systems’

implementations.This provides campuses far more flexibility to expand

the number of class sections.Typically, the computer lab sections are limited

due to availability of lab time.While this does provide students the ability

to learn anytime, anywhere, it does pose problems for the faculty to

keep some students on course.The ability to defer the work often does

result in deferral, and sometimes students don’t allow enough time to finish

the material, resulting in an incomplete grade for the course. Other students

are able to finish the course, typically working at 1:00 am.The key to

the successful deployment of this type of teaching and learning system is

the Instructional Management System which allows instructors to monitor

all activities.

A Starting Point: Using Technology to Share Knowledge

“New technology will play a big role in learning both inside and

outside the classroom. The return on investment will be profound.”

—Bill Gates, The Road Ahead

The standardization of the Web as a delivery platform has tremendous

advantages. Previous discussions about platforms limited the ability of software

developers to create content that could be ubiquitously delivered.

The browser as a default Web operating environment is not optimal for

delivering instructional content, but the trade-off is that there are now

“only” two standards. Most content can be created to be delivered in either

Netscape NavigatorTM or Internet ExplorerTM using the same software. Other

new developments include:

Instructional management systems (IMS). Software that allows us

to track performance and provide feedback are available.The IMS assesses

student capabilities and performance and adjusts an individual’s learning

path adapting to his or her strengths and weaknesses, rate of progress, and

learning style.The IMS also saves student performance data and provides

reports to the student and to the course administrator, detailing student

progress and recommended studies.


Using The Web For Interactive Teaching and Learning

The web will provide a

low cost alternative.

Previous courses cost

0 per hour of computer-

based instruction.

With new software tools

and the Web this cost is

now projected to be

:node_body,.03 per hour in 2002.

(Source: Merrill Lynch)

Next generation systems will have sophisticated profiling capabilities, creating

a tight link to assessments and create prescriptive learning plans.The

most robust product in the market today is Pathware 4.

Networking and communications systems changes. High bandwidth

Internets and Intranets encourage creation and delivery of computer-

mediated learning systems. This provides a framework to create a learning

environment that places the individual student at the center of the

learning enterprise, engaging him or her with highly interactive multimedia

courseware.With the help of mentors, students can work their way

through the entire curriculum of those courses that lend themselves to

this approach. Students now have e-mail accounts and many dormitories

are wired with LANs providing access to courses from outside the classroom.

New powerful, easy-to-use authoring tools are available.

Sophisticated software enabling faculty to work in a multimedia environment,

customizing courseware by expanding or creating topics and lessons

is now available.These include object-oriented authoring systems with

visual programming interface developed specifically for multimedia courseware

development.This technology allows us to reinvent curricula, and in

this way to deliver distinctive educational experiences that are richer in

content and context than even the most dedicated instructor can create in

a traditional classroom lecture.

New tools are available that dramatically change the development process

for instructional content. Historically, the costs in terms of time to develop

interactive courseware for the business world ranged from 200-300 hours

per hour of instruction.With templates and “Knowledge ObjectsTM,” programming

efficiencies can reduce this time required substantially.

Knowledge Objects are pre-built wizards and templates that can be used to

accelerate authoring tasks, from creating application frameworks and

quizzes to installing fonts.

The instructional software development environment had traditionally consisted

of subject matter experts,working with instructional designers, who

created the instructional scope and sequence models using storyboards.

These were then handed off to programmers, who did the actual coding.

The next step was typically a quality assurance process that evaluated the

impact of every change.This process was lengthy, costly, and provided little

flexibility.Today, new authoring tools like Macromedia DreamweaverTM

and Attain® Objects for DreamweaverTM allow faculty to easily create

course Web sites without having to master programming languages like



Using The Web For Interactive Teaching and Learning

Standards: Providing a Platform for Interoperability

Interest in learning technology interoperability has rapidly grown from the

cause of a few pioneers like Macromedia to a critical mass phenomenon. It

is now widely acknowledged that interoperability holds the key to the

reuse and integration needed for tomorrow’s sophisticated online learning.

By providing a set of standards identifying specific trackable information,

training developers can build interactive instructional software which can

link to a common management system.This will allow organizations to better

manage and track instruction.The benefits of having a standards-based

integrated teaching and learning system are vast, including:

• Providing immediate feedback so that students and instructors

can take action as needed.

• Providing a comprehensive library of training materials in

one repository.

• Mixing and matching off the shelf content and custom content.

• Providing reports to allow for better measurements of usage

and results.

• Minimizing costs associated with the implementation of multiple


• Support for a wide selection of authoring tools that output

trackable data.

The standards efforts are still evolving, with work coming from different

interest groups--all with a common goal of creating standards for developers

to provide the requisite level of interoperability.Work began a decade

ago in the commercial aviation industry with the Aviation Industry CBT

Committee (AICC) which is an open forum of training professionals that

develops guidelines for interoperable learning technology.

During the past five years the AICC's Computer-Managed-Instruction (CMI)

specification has become established as the most comprehensive CMI

specification supported by products and in global operational use.The

AICC provides guidelines and recommendations covering ten areas, including:

publications, courseware delivery stations, digital audio, operating/

windowing systems, CBT peripheral devices, computer-managed instruction,

courseware interchange, digital video, icon standards, user interface,

Web-based computer-managed instruction.

The AICC has submitted its CMI specification to the IEEE LTSC for standardization.

As learning applications transition from LAN or CD-ROM onto

the Web and the transition from a closed to an open environment, standards

become essential. In a closed environment proprietary solutions

were acceptable, on the Web they are not.

The airline industry had a compelling set of needs for tracking training for

aircraft pilots, technicians and others. Detailed and accurate tracking was


Using The Web For Interactive Teaching and Learning

AICC has the first set of

tracking specifications


Standards improve the

return on investment by

providing a framework for


required to certify completion of training on different types of aircraft.

The standards recommended by the AICC are comprehensive and address

the majority of needs of corporations from most industries.With the delivery

of first generation Web based tracking systems that support the AICC

standards, as delivered in Pathware 4’s Integrated Management System,

customers in telecommunications, financial, healthcare and high technology

industries have found that these standards meet their needs. Educational

institutions have found that AICC standards-based products like Pathware 4

meet the majority of their needs, and where there are specific additional

tracking needs, the ability to track additional fields of data allows support

for these different needs. For information about AICC’s standards efforts,

visit http://www.aicc.org.

A separate effort sponsored by EDUCOM, the Instructional Management

Systems (IMS) project includes a consortium of learning institutions and

vendors whose goal is defining a comprehensive architecture for online


The first set of guidelines from IMS are still in development and will be

focused on integrating data between different systems--HR management

systems, administrative systems and training systems. IMS has over 200

member organizations that comprise major technology vendors, education

organizations representing K-12 and higher education, the U.S. military, and

international members. In 1998 Educom merged with CAUSE, forming

EDUCAUSE. IMS and AICC have signed a memo of understanding to collaborate

on areas of mutual interest.

The IMS architecture encompasses platform independent interfaces for

metadata, aggregated content, management services, user profiles and

external services such as databases. For more information, visit the

EDUCOM Web site at http://www.imsproject.org.

Successful, developer-oriented consortia such as the AICC and the IMS

now exist solely to define interoperability specification.They share a commitment

to exploring collaboration opportunities, converging on common

solutions, and using the IEEE Learning Technology Standards Committee to

turn their specifications into standards.

Another effort, the Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) initiative fosters

collaborations between government, academia and industry to accelerate

the advent of effective online learning.The initiative began in November

1997 under the aegis of the U.S. Department of Defense and White House

Office of Science and Technology Policy.ADL is catalyzing alliances

between these groups to accelerate the pace of standards adoption across

the U.S. government.


Using The Web For Interactive Teaching and Learning

Following Macromedia’s lead, products from several vendors now support

the first viable specification:AICC CMI.The Computer Managed Instruction

Specification defines the performance data exchanged between a

learning management system and interactive lessons. It also defines a format

that allows courses to be exchanged between different management

systems.An IEEE CMI standard based on AICC CMI is expected in the year


Implementation will soon begin for the second viable specification:

Learning Object Metadata (LOM).This defines descriptive information that

can be associated with resources like interactive content to aid in their discovery

and use.The LOM specification represents an international collaboration

between the IMS and ARIADNE initiatives brokered by the IEEE

LTSC.An IEEE LOM standard is also expected in the year 2000.

Macromedia’s commitment to learning technology interoperability began

with its early support for the AICC: the first organization dedicated to the

problem.At present Macromedia actively participates in the AICC, the IMS,

the IEEE, LTSC and ADL.Across these efforts, Macromedia champions the

values of collaboration, convergence, standardization with a commitment

to be among the first to implement emerging standards in its products.

Start Now!

Faculty and administrators can start to implement the benefits now of

using technology to implement integrated teaching and learning systems.

One of the first steps is to identify where and how it makes sense in your

specific environment. If you are committed to offering distance learning

courses, planning the role technology can play is critical.Will the instruction

be using video, audio, computer instruction or simple web pages?

Faculty can begin to create interactive course web pages now with

DreamweaverTM, using Attain ObjectsTM for DreamweaverTM to create

simple interactivity. Faculty can put up a syllabus, reading list, links to the

library and students' email addresses. Presentation materials can be easily

migrated from formats like PowerPointTM presentations or handwritten

notes. Interaction can be added by dragging and dropping different forms

of interaction and editing the text.Tests can easily be constructed using

the templates that come with the instructional Web authoring products.

Tracking of answers and input can be enabled simply by clicking a button.

A next step is to evaluate the institution’s needs for an instructional management

system, and the role that you expect standards to play. Since AICC

standards are the only ones that have product support today, that is a good

place to start. Communicate the importance of these standards to those

creating or buying content to ensure that the content contains tracking

support.As courses are built, ensure that the tracking tools are used and

encourage the integration of tracking with content.


Using The Web For Interactive Teaching and Learning

It might make sense to pick a course to start with, and develop a pilot

implementation. One area to start is with the training of faculty on information

systems technology. Since most faculty need training themselves,

buying a course offered by a commercial vendor, like NetG, CBT or

Teach.com, and linking those courses to a tracking system can demonstrate

the simplicity and power of an integrated teaching and learning system.

These courses are built to work with the PathwareTM 4 Instructional

Management System. Providing the benefits to the faculty first can have

several benefits: it can provide the much needed training that can ensure

later success for other technology programs, and it can serve to inform the

institution of the benefits and challenges of implementing an integrated

teaching and learning system.To experiment with the Pathware

Instructional Management System, visit http://www.macromedia.com/software/


The Macromedia Solutions

Macromedia, with a 12-year history of developing technology products for

learning, is the leading provider of solutions for creating integrated teaching

and learning solutions.The Macromedia solution covers the entire

process of developing on-line learning from creating content to delivery,

tracking and reporting student results.

For developing computer-based instruction, new tools make developing

instructional content far easier, and less expensive than in the past.The

tools allow course designers to maximize the benefits of a hyper-linked

web environment. New products like Dreamweaver, with the Attain

Objects allow Web-based content to be created by subject matter experts

who don’t need to know programming languages.This new category of

developers can build interactive instructional web sites in a fraction of the

time that it would take using the previous model.The instructional designer

can drag and drop predefined interactions on a page, and customize the

content by editing the text.Templates for assessment like true/false questions,

multiple choice questions and others are available for selection.The

output generated by these tools is computer code, which can run in a


With new technologies like Macromedia FlashTM , with over 166 million

users (as of July, 1999) developers can create beautiful, resizable, and

extremely small and compact navigation interfaces, technical illustrations,

long-form animations, and other dazzling effects for learning Web sites and

other Web-enabled devices (such as WebTV).Additionally, Flash 4 is easy to

learn for Web developers of all skill levels. Flash graphics and animations

are created using the drawing tools in Flash or by importing artwork from

your favorite vector illustration tool, such as Macromedia FreeHand®.


Using The Web For Interactive Teaching and Learning

Macromedia offers a wide

range of authoring tools

and management software

—all product leaders in their


ShockwaveTM is the Web standard for entertaining, engaging, and rich

media playback—with over 75 million players installed (July, 1999). It lets

you view interactive Web learning content from your Web browser.

Shockwave Player creates stronger communication through visual impact,

interactivity, and high-production values.Web users are attracted to content

that is engaging, informative and entertaining.

Authorware® AttainTM is the leading visual authoring tool for creating

interactive, rich-media learning applications. It allows training developers,

instructional designers and subject matter experts to create trackable

learning applications and deploy them across the Web, LANs and CD-ROM.

Authors leverage an intuitive visual interface and pre-built learning interactions

to quickly and easily create interactive courseware. Built-in data tracking

facilitates the recording of student results and streaming capabilities

enable delivery of rich-media learning content over Intranets and the Web.

Another product, Director® 7 ShockwaveTM Internet StudioTM is the

standard for creating and delivering powerful multimedia learning for the

Internet, CD-ROMs, and DVD-ROMs. Rather than serving simple graphics

and text, Director encourages creativity with the only tools powerful

enough to combine graphics, sound, animation, text, and video into compelling


The Studio’s intuitive visual development metaphor makes it easy to create,

import, animate, and control media. For sophisticated interactivity, one

can leverage Director’s easy-to-use drag-and-drop behaviors or powerful

object-oriented scripting language.

PathwareTM 4 is the first Web-native, standards-based learning management

system for the enterprise.With Pathware you can efficiently plan,

produce, administer, and deliver curricula, as well as track, store, and report

student progress from any browser, anywhere in the world. No plug-ins or

downloads are necessary.

Pathware 4 allows mission-critical learning to be easily deployed, scaled,

and securely integrated with back-end systems. Pathware 4 tracks all forms

of commercial and custom-developed learning content, including Webbased

and instructor-led courses, for any number of students at multiple

locations. Pathware 4 supports the AICC standard for incorporating off-theshelf

learning content.


Using The Web For Interactive Teaching and Learning

The Future

“Information technology will bring mass customization to learning

too....Workers will be able to keep up to date on techniques in their

field. People anywhere will be able to take the best courses taught by

the greatest teachers.” --Bill Gates, The Road Ahead.

The future of integrated teaching and learning systems is exciting.Taking

advantage of the bandwidth available to desktops, the capabilities of

mobile technologies, and the emerging Web-based standards for delivering

instruction creates an environment for collaborative learning. Using systems

which can be trained to understand the learner's needs, assess prior knowledge,

and create and deliver a personalized learning plan is in the near

future.Tracking the instruction and knowing who needs what instruction

so that the system can be proactive rather than reactive are all technologically

feasible. Providing libraries of information that can be used for

instruction will reduce the duplicate expenses being spent because the

learning objects can be used in different formats, for different purposes.

With distributed technologies, learning can take place anytime, anywhere.

There will be increased pressure on educational institutions to challenge

many traditional practices: like fixed starting and ending class sessions

with a model that lends itself to open entry and open exit usage.The

issues of allowing students to progress at their own pace challenges the

boundaries of today's class syllabi--how do you measure for grading and

tuition planning courses? But the opportunity to meet the changing needs

of lifelong learners, outside the limits of the formal degree programs with

truly personalized instruction is truly exciting.Tools are available today to

provide this level of support for learning.


Using The Web For Interactive Teaching and Learning


Armstrong,T. (Nov., 1994) Multiple Intelligences: Seven Ways to Approach Curriculum. Educational Leadership,

52:3, pp26-28.

Bloom, B. ed., et al. (1967). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Handbook 1: Cognitive Domain. New York:

Harcourt Brace & World.

Bloom, B. S. (1968). Mastery Learning. In Evaluation Comment, 1(2). Los Angeles: University of California at Los

Angeles. Center for the Study of Instructional Programs.

Bloom, B. S (1976). Human Characteristics and Human Learning. New York:McGraw-Hill.

Bloom, B. S. (1984, June/July).The 2 Sigma Problem:The search for Methods of Group Instruction as Effective as

One-on-One Tutoring. Educational Researcher, 13:4-16.

Bruner, J. S. (1961). The Act of Discovery. Harvard Educational Review, 32:21-32.

Bruner, J. S. (1966). Towards a Theory of Instruction. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Caine,G. & Caine, R. (1994) Making Connections:Teaching and the Human Brain, Innovative Learning

Publications,Addison-Wesley Publishing, Menlo Park, CA.

Chapman, C. (1993). If the Shoe Fits...How To Develop Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom. Palatine, IL:

IRI/Skylight Publishing, Inc.

Cohen, P. Ebeling, B. and Kulik, J. (1981) A Meta-analysis of outcome studies of visual-based instruction.

Educational Communications and Technology Journal, 29, 26-36

Dunn, R. & K. (1999). The Complete Guide to the Learning Styles Inservice System.Allyn & Bacon

Educational Testing Services. (October, 1998). ETS study: Policy Information Report, Does it Compute,The

Relationship of Educational Technology and Student Achievement in Mathematics.

Eisner, E.W. (1994). Commentary: Putting Multiple Intelligences in Context: Some Questions and Observations.

Teachers College Record, 95:4 pp. 555-60. Princeton, New Jersey.

Gardner,Howard (1983). Frames of Mind :The Theory of Multiple Intelligences.New York : Basic Books.

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Gifford, B. (1997). Mediated Learning Whitepaper. (http://www.academic.com).

Gifford, B. 1999. Ready for Learning:A Mandate for American Higher Education. (http://www.academic.com)

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Using The Web For Interactive Teaching and Learning

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Using The Web For Interactive Teaching and Learning

©1999 Macromedia, Inc.All rights reserved. Macromedia, the Macromedia Logo, Attain Objects for Dreamweaver,Authorware,Authorware Attain, Director,

Dreamweaver, Flash, FreeHand, Pathware, Shockwave, Shockwave Internet Studio are trademarks or registered trademarks of Macromedia, Inc. All other brand

names may be trademarks or registered trademarks of others.

Font designed by Font Bureau, Inc. using Macromedia Fontographer®. Macromedia corporate identiy designed by Research Studios, London.

تواصل معنا

الجدول الدراسي

روابط مكتبات


التوحد مش مرض

متلازمة داون

روابط هامة

برنامج كشف الإنتحال العلمي (تورنتن)

روابط مهمة للأوتيزم

ساعات الإستشارات النفسية والتربوية

تجول عبر الانترنت

spinning earth photo: spinning earth color spinning_earth_color_79x79.gif

موعد تسليم المشروع البحثي

على طالبات المستوى الثامن  شعبة رقم (147) مقرر LED 424 الالتزام بتسليم التكليفات الخاصة بالمشروع في الموعد المحدد  (3/8/1440هـ)


معايير تقييم المشروع البحثي الطلابي


ندوة الدور الاجتماعي للتعليم


حالة الطقس

المجمعة حالة الطقس

الساعات المكتبية

التميز في العمل الوظيفي


(التميز في العمل الوظيفي)

برنامج تدريبي مقدم إلى إدارة تعليم محافظة الغاط – إدارة الموارد البشرية - وحدة تطوير الموارد البشرية يوم الأربعاء 3/ 5 / 1440 هـ. الوقت: 8 ص- 12 ظهرًا بمركز التدريب التربوي (بنات) بالغاط واستهدف قياديات ومنسوبات إدارة التعليم بالغاط

تشخيص وعلاج التهتهة في الكلام


حملة سرطان الأطفال(سنداً لأطفالنا)


اليوم العالمي للطفل


المهارات الناعمة ومخرجات التعلم


المهارات الناعمة

المهارات الناعمة مفهوم يربط بين التكوين والتعليم وبين حاجات سوق العمل، تعتبر مجالاً واسعاً وحديثا يتسم بالشمولية ويرتبط بالجوانب النفسية والاجتماعية عند الطالب الذي يمثل مخرجات تعلم أي مؤسسة تعليمية، لذلك؛ فإن هذه المهارات تضاف له باستمرار – وفق متغيرات سوق العمل وحاجة المجتمع – وهي مهارات جديدة مثل مهارات إدارة الأزمات ومهارة حل المشاكل وغيرها. كما أنها تمثلالقدرات التي يمتلكها الفرد وتساهم في تطوير ونجاح المؤسسة التي ينتمي إليها. وترتبط هذه المهارات بالتعامل الفعّال وتكوين العلاقات مع الآخرينومن أهم المهارات الناعمة:


مهارات التفكير الناقد

مهارات الفكر الناقد والقدرة على التطوير من خلال التمكن من أساليب التقييم والحكم واستنتاج الحلول والأفكار الخلاقة، وهي من بين المهارات الناعمة الأكثر طلبا وانتشارا، وقد بدأت الجامعات العربية تضع لها برامج تدريب خاصة أو تدمجها في المواد الدراسية القريبة منها لأنه بات ثابتا أنها من أهم المؤهلات التي تفتح باب بناء وتطوير الذات أمام الطالب سواء في مسيرته التعليمية أو المهنية.


الصحة النفسية لأطفال متلازمة داون وأسرهم




لا للتعصب - نعم للحوار

يوم اليتيم العربي



موقع يساعد على تحرير الكتابة باللغة الإنجليزية


تطبيق يقوم تلقائيًا باكتشاف الأخطاء النحوية والإملائية وعلامات الترقيم واختيار الكلمات وأخطاء الأسلوب في الكتابة

Grammarly: Free Writing Assistant

مخرجات التعلم

تصنيف بلوم لقياس مخرجات التعلم


التعلم القائم على النواتج (المخرجات)

التعلم القائم على المخرجات يركز على تعلم الطالب خلال استخدام عبارات نواتج التعلم التي تصف ما هو متوقع من المتعلم معرفته، وفهمه، والقدرة على أدائه بعد الانتهاء من موقف تعليمي، وتقديم أنشطة التعلم التي تساعد الطالب على اكتساب تلك النواتج، وتقويم مدى اكتساب الطالب لتلك النواتج من خلال استخدام محكات تقويم محدودة.

ما هي مخرجات التعلم؟

عبارات تبرز ما سيعرفه الطالب أو يكون قادراً على أدائه نتيجة للتعليم أو التعلم أو كليهما معاً في نهاية فترة زمنية محددة (مقرر – برنامج – مهمة معينة – ورشة عمل – تدريب ميداني) وأحياناً تسمى أهداف التعلم)

خصائص مخرجات التعلم

أن تكون واضحة ومحددة بدقة. يمكن ملاحظتها وقياسها. تركز على سلوك المتعلم وليس على نشاط التعلم. متكاملة وقابلة للتطوير والتحويل. تمثيل مدى واسعا من المعارف والمهارات المعرفية والمهارات العامة.


اختبار كفايات المعلمين



التقويم الأكاديمي للعام الجامعي 1439/1440

مهارات تقويم الطالب الجامعي

مهارات تقويم الطالب الجامعي

معايير تصنيف الجامعات

الجهات الداعمة للابتكار في المملكة

تصميم مصفوفات وخرائط الأولويات البحثية

أنا أستطيع د.منى توكل

مونتاج مميز للطالبات

القياس والتقويم (مواقع عالمية)

مواقع مفيدة للاختبارات والمقاييس

مؤسسة بيروس للاختبارات والمقاييس


مركز البحوث التربوية


القياس والتقويم


مؤسسة الاختبارات التربوية


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