د/سعيد طه محمود أبو السعود

أستاذ أصول التربية ورئيس مركز الجودة كلية التربية بالزلفي

تعليم المسؤولية

تعليم المسئولية البيئية المحليةوالعالمية النص الانجليزي
Education for Local and Global Ecological
Responsibility: Arne Næss’s Cross-Cultural,
Ecophilosophy Approach1
Alan Drengson,Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
Abstract
This paper explains Arne Næss’s approach to understanding
contemporary grassroots movements, and especially the long
range deep ecology movement. Some critics reject what they call
“deep ecology” and criticize “deep ecologists,” but in so doing
they confuse Næss’s personal ultimate philosophy—which he
calls Ecosophy T—with his description of global socio-political
movements (Glasser, 1996, 1997). Næss’s interdisciplinary, crosscultural
approach involves a four level framework for discourse
that is fruitful for local and global environmental study. It helps
us clarify how local actions and global responsibility can become
a part of all our relationships. This approach stresses respect and
appreciation for all forms of diversity: personal, cultural and ecological.
Using it we can help students and ourselves design personal
ecosophies as living philosophies of ecological harmony.
Résumé
Ce document explique l’approche d’Arne Næss pour
comprendre les mouvements communautaires contemporains,
et notamment le mouvement d’écologisme radical à large
spectre. Certains critiques rejettent ce qu’ils nomment l’« écologisme
radical » et s’opposent aux « écologistes radicaux », mais
confondent la philosophie absolue et personnelle de Næss,
l’écosophie T, ainsi que sa description des mouvements
sociopolitiques mondiaux. L’approche interdisciplinaire et
interculturelle de Næss nous donne un cadre de quatre niveaux
en vue d’un discours fructueux pour l’étude environnementale
locale et mondiale. Elle nous aide à clarifier comment les actions
locales se relient à la responsabilité globale dans toutes nos
relations. Au moyen de cette approche de questionnement
profond, nous pouvons tous créer notre propre écosophie, qui
Canadian Journal of Environmental Education, 5, Spring 2000 63
correspond à toute philosophie vécue dont les valeurs mènent à
l’harmonie écologique. Nous pouvons aider les étudiants à
concevoir leur propre écosophie et à apprécier celles des autres.
Cette approche insiste sur l’appréciation et le respect de toutes
les formes de diversité : personnelle, culturelle et écologique.
Grassroots Movements and Cross-cultural Studies
The grassroots movement for ecological responsibility arose during the last
hundred years. Some major figures and events mark its development, for
example the debates between John Muir and Gifford Pinchot about preservation
vs. conservation. Writers East and West (see Brown et al., 1999;
Bowers, 1993; Devall, 1994; Mander & Goldsmith, 1996; Norberg-Hodge,
1991; Shiva, 1993) ascribe the global environmental crisis primarily to the
paradigms and development models of modern western industrialism. As
industrial development based on these models has spread, so has large scale
degradation of the human and natural environment. The more intensely its
economy has been applied, the more intensely it has pushed against the limits
of the natural world’s ecological processes, functions and communities.
What are some consequences of using this model?
If we take our ecological footprint—the land measure of our impact on
the natural world—we find that as members of modern industrial states, we
have very large feet (Wackernagel & Rees, 1996). Our ecological footprints
are 50 or more times larger than those of nonindustrial people. Cross-cultural
interdisciplinary studies and research have given us this knowledge.
There is almost universal agreement among scientists from most UN
nations that the over-all impact of environmental destruction, caused by
modern technology—magnified by human numbers, is seriously disrupting
major ecological processes and functions. To mention two: the build up
of greenhouse gasses and effects on health and climate, and the thinning of
the ozone shield and its effect on plant and animal life. These are problems
of gigantic scale, and overwhelming evidence suggests that they are primarily
the result of human industrial activity (Brown et al., 1999). Many feel
alarms are sounding. The rate of species extinction is increasing. It now
exceeds the rate during the aftermath of the large asteroid collision 63
million years ago. We do not know what the ultimate effects of these
changes will be for humans. The more we learn about the diversity of
biological and ecological functions and processes, the more we realize how
little we know about this vast, complicated planetary system. This ignorance
64 Alan Drengson
is not incompatible with wisdom, but being aware of it is necessary for wise
actions (Drengson, 1981). Precautionary principles are advised.
Many platforms have been put forth as a basis for collective action to
deal with these perceived global problems. These principles include aim,
value and action statements. For example, platforms have been articulated
for the four grass-roots, global movements of this century: the Social
Justice Movement, the Peace Movement, the Environmental Movement, and
the Appropriate Technology Movement. The principles of these movements
have emerged from the bottom up. They have been carried forward
by the work of thousands of non-government organizations,
researchers, and scholars in countries all over the world.
In comparing different cultures we notice not only differences, but some
similar practices and values, and some common principles and agreements.
Some agreements are implicit, not spelled out, but simply acted out on a day
to day basis. Some common elements and principles are embodied in traditions
and international agreements, such as UN declarations, treaties, and
other cross-cultural instruments. For example, there are now widely
embraced universal standards of human rights and decency. There are international
standards pertaining to the treatment of prisoners of war. There are
also some agreements about standards in trade and environmental safety.
There are some almost universal agreements about biological diversity,
endangered species and other subjects pertaining to the integrity of the
Earth’s ecological communities and ecosystems. Of course, none of these
agreements are perfectly enacted or universally adopted. Many nations
ignore ones they have signed, but still they have acknowledged the principles.
This general level of agreement among diverse nations is remarkable,
considering that not long ago there was much greater division in the
world. It is also remarkable when we consider that cross-cultural discussions
of worldviews and of different value systems have only recently emerged
through the work of various investigators. In the 19th century, most comparative
cross-cultural work was ethnocentric. Few of the authors had
direct experience with the practices central to the philosophies of other cultures
they wrote about. Many bridges have been built since through crosscultural
cooperation and experience on the part of many people.
The over-arching aim of cross-cultural ecophilosophy is to have a comprehensive,
long range, global view of our situation as planet Earth
dwellers. Critical to this undertaking is insight into the values we embrace
and of the quality and type of relationships we create with one another and
with the natural world. Education helps us to achieve this larger understanding
necessary for wise actions.
Education for Local and Global Ecological Responsibility 65
Ecophilosophy is an inquiry that respects human and biological diversity,
and the rich values found within cultures and Nature. For our purposes
we will describe it as comprehensive and deep value inquiry (on which full
cost accounting depends). We each should seek to articulate our own ultimate
values. We can proceed as if to avoid ethnocentrism and anthropocentrism.
The narrow immature approach is an egocentric one, and the
wider, more mature, ecologically and socially responsible approach is bio
or ecocentric. Social and ecological responsibility are intertwined. An ecocentric
approach is inclusive, and includes cultures along with their natural
contexts, their land. It includes all values found on Earth. It appreciates
intrinsic values found in both the human and natural world.
Comprehensive value inquiry helps to build bridges, paths, networks and
connections that cross-cultural boundaries. These help us to act with harmony
and beauty in international cooperation for the Earth. Fruitful crosscultural
discussions and inquiry require that we assent to principles of
mutual respect, openness and appreciation. Humour and play also help to
further this larger understanding.
Ecophilosophy aims to discover the many forms of ecological wisdom.
In search of wisdom, we seek a comprehensive sense of our situation
as humans of a particular culture, on planet Earth, with its great diversity
of cultures and beings. The pursuit of this comprehensive, cross-cultural
understanding has been advanced through six main areas of study and
cooperation. These have furthered our ability to understand one another in
a global context, with respect for cultural diversity, unique places and
specific historical traditions. These areas of study and cooperation are:
• Cross-cultural research,
• Comparative studies and cultural exchanges, for example in the humanities
and arts,
• Negotiated frameworks for international cooperation based on trade, disaster
relief, etc.,
• Grassroots movements and NGOs such as the peace, social justice, and
environmental movements,
• Cooperative scientific and technological studies and undertakings, such as
atmospheric research, and
• International networks with the development of telecommunications, jet
transport, email, the WEB and so on. (This is not an exhaustive list.)
These six areas continue to work, despite cultural diversity, because there
are some shared values. For example, because we care for and live on a common
Earth, we share certain ecological values, and because of our origins
66 Alan Drengson
we share a common humanity, despite wide cultural differences. These areas
of participation help many people from diverse nations to experience a sense
of planetary care and community. They feel good about human and cultural
creativity. Cooperation on issues of peace and nonviolent resolution of
conflicts is possible because we share some basic values on human rights
and about appropriate means for resolving differences. Such cooperative
undertakings involve significant levels of maturity, for they depend on mutual
respect, acceptance of diversity in races, cultures, worldviews and religions. How
can we better advance these shared values in education to encourage pursuit
of wisdom in our relations with each other and the natural world
(Kohn, 1992; Nicholls, 1989)? The effort to gain this comprehensive depth
is called ecophilosophy (Næss, in Drengson and Inoue, 1995, p. 3-9).
The Ecology Movement
When Rachel Carson published Silent Spring in 1962, she received both
receptive and hostile responses. Vested interests attacked her character
and integrity. However, many who read her book thought that she spoke
the truth. They felt as she did. Modern industrial methods are putting
toxic substances into the food chains. They disrupt the ecological and evolutionary
processes that maintain a habitable Earth. Valuable species and
traditions are being lost.
Carson’s love for the natural world deepened her field ecologist’s
understanding of ecological communities, and she communicated this to
others. She helped them to see the world through a field ecologist’s eyes—
as an interconnected whole. Environmental concern, as a major political
force in the West, is often dated from the publication of Silent Spring. In the
10 years that followed, up to the first Earth Day in 1972, the lessons of field
ecology permeated the ecology movement, research and education.
Conditions were ripe for some basic distinctions.
By 1972 the global, grassroots social and political environmental movement
had two main forms. These were described by Norwegian philosopher
Arne Næss when he spoke on the environmental crisis and the ecology
movement in an address given in Bucharest in Central Europe at a conference
on The Future of Research. (See Drengson and Inoue, 1995, p. 3-9
for the presentation.) Næss noted that many people around the world are
aware of increasing environmental degradation. They feel that something
needs to be done. He explained the two main types of responses by distinguishing
between the short term Shallow Ecology Movement and the
long range Deep Ecology Movement.
Education for Local and Global Ecological Responsibility 67
Næss has been a follower of Gandhi’s way of nonviolence since a
young man. He is now 88. He has lived through wars and depressions.
Norway was occupied by German armies for five years during the Second
World War. He was a leader of nonviolent resistance to this occupation. He
has lived and taught in many countries, and climbed in major mountain
ranges all over the world. When he traveled around after the war, he participated
in various local forums and international workshops. He was a
leader in interdisciplinary cross-cultural research. He spoke with a growing
number of people with extensive cross-cultural experience. He carried
on scholarly research in many languages and corresponded with many
scholars in other parts of the world.
As Næss traveled and studied, he noted the ways in which people abide
by principles cutting across cultural boundaries, such as Gandhi’s principles
of nonviolence and the principles of social justice. He identified two
main reactions to the awareness that we are disrupting the natural world.
The short term Shallow Ecology Movement relies on quick, technical fixes
and pursues business as usual without any deep value questioning or
long range changes in the system. The long range Deep Ecology Movement
takes a broader view, looks for long term solutions and pursues deep
questioning and new patterns of change and action. We cannot go on with
business as usual. We must change our life styles toward higher quality of
life, rather than increasingly higher levels of production and consumption.
The Shallow Ecology Movement does not question deeply for it focuses
on short term, narrow human interests. Thus, it only tinkers with the built
systems. It does not question its own fundamental methods, values and purposes.
It does not look deeply into the nature of our relationships with
each other and other beings. It assumes we can do okay without making fundamental
changes. This is the approach generally followed by mainstream
institutions.
In contrast, the deep questioning approach, the long range Deep
Ecology Movement, examines our basic values and reflects on our fundamental
relationships and who we are. Supporters ask how to change their
activities to bring them into harmony with natural community processes.
They realize we do not know how to manage the natural world, but must
learn from the integrity and diversity naturally found there. We must
learn to manage ourselves as responsible members of the ecosphere, which
includes diverse social and species communities.
While the Shallow Ecology Movement is anthropocentric (humans first)
and considers only human interests, the Deep Ecology Movement is based
on platform principles that emphasize the need to respect the intrinsic
68 Alan Drengson
worth of all beings, humans included, and to treasure all forms of biological
and cultural diversity.
Levels of Discourse and Diverse Ecosophies
Næss notes that there are four main levels of discourse used when we talk
about values and actions in relation to the environmental crisis and social
movements. (For Næss’s more sophisticated apron diagram on these levels
see Drengson and Inoue, 1995, p. 10-12.) For purposes of simplification
these levels are as follows:
• Level 1 involves ultimate philosophies with ultimate value and nature
of the world premises,
• Level 2 includes systems of principles and codes, for example the platform
principles of political movements,
• Level 3 involves policy and other guiding and interpretive formulations,
and
• Level 4 includes statements about practical actions.
Næss (1991) calls his own personal (Level 1) ultimate philosophy
Ecosophy T. It is based on the norm, “Self-realization for all beings!” It
does not characterize a political movement. The Deep Ecology Movement
is characterized by means of (Level 2) platform principles. Such platforms do
not constitute a whole philosophy, but invite support from people with diverse
ultimate philosophies (Level I), especially if these are ecosophies.
A major purpose of ecophilosophy is to articulate and understand
ecosophies. Ecosophies are articulated and practiced ultimate philosophies
based on ecologically and socially responsible values. Living an
ecosophy gives rise to ecological harmony and beauty. Following Næss
(1973, 1991) we say that ecosophy is ecological wisdom, as derived from the
ancient Greek roots “ecos” meaning place, and “sophia” meaning wisdom.
We emphasize that there is not just one ecosophy that all humans everywhere
must accept. There are very many ecosophies and the possibilities for articulating
new ones are almost unlimited. This abundant diversity is good in itself, but
it is also good for a multitude of instrumental reasons, including survival—
which many would say is good in itself. How do we nourish the development
of ecosophies in contemporary societies? How do we encourage them
locally and globally? In environmental education students should study
diverse ecosophies. Consider the levels of discourse involved, learn crosscultural
approaches, how to describe and compare different value systems
Education for Local and Global Ecological Responsibility 69
and worldviews, and how to articulate their own personal ecosophies.
This process connects the personal to the communal and global contexts. It
should be a cooperative undertaking (Nicholls, 1989).
Cross-cultural studies have helped us to appreciate the diverse worldviews
on planet Earth. At the level of international cooperation, we have created
institutions that enable us to work together globally despite these cultural
differences. As mentioned earlier, the broadly accepted principles of
social justice and the principles of nonviolent resolution of conflict have
become part of international agreements that most of us can affirm from our
different ultimate philosophies or religions. Nations attempt to develop policies
that honour such principles agreed to in international bodies and
treaties. These policies encourage certain courses of action to improve
conditions in specific contexts and places. Many transition strategies are
being used in different places. (See Notes for websites.2)
Just as we have made progress in the area of human rights and nonviolent
resolution of conflicts, so too we have made progress in recognizing
the seriousness and depth of the environmental crisis. Common themes
have emerged. A number of agreements and declarations, put forth in
different local, regional, national and international forums, affirm many of
the platform principles that Næss and Sessions articulated in 1984 as a basis
for collective actions in our different cultural settings. The platform principles
proposed are the following eight points:
The Platform Principles of the Long Range Deep Ecology Movement
1. The well-being and flourishing of human and nonhuman Life on
Earth have value in themselves (synonyms: intrinsic value, inherent
value). These values are independent of the usefulness of the nonhuman
world for human purposes.
2. Richness and diversity of life forms contribute to the realizations of
these values and are also values in themselves.
3. Humans have no right to reduce this richness and diversity except to
satisfy vital human needs.
4. The flourishing of human life and cultures is compatible with a substantial
decrease of human population. The flourishing of nonhuman
life requires such a decrease.
5. Present human interference with the nonhuman world is excessive, and
the situation is rapidly worsening.
6. Policies must therefore be changed. These policies affect basic economic,
technological, and ideological structures. The resulting state of
affairs will be deeply different from the present.
70 Alan Drengson
7. The ideological change is mainly that of appreciating life quality
(dwelling in situations of inherent value) rather than adhering to an
increasingly higher standard of living. There will be a profound awareness
of the difference between big and great.
8. Those who subscribe to the foregoing points have an obligation to
directly or indirectly try to implement the necessary changes. (From
Deep Ecology by Bill Devall and George Sessions, 1985.)
It should be stressed here that Næss and others do not regard this platform
statement as the final word. Næss invites people to suggest modifications
as they see fit. He has recently offered a new version of the Eight
Points (Næss, 1999). It is important to underscore that this description of the
Deep Ecology Movement is not an account of his personal philosophy,
which he calls Ecosophy T. The platform principles are supported by people
from diverse backgrounds. There are supporters who are Buddhists,
Shintoists, Taoists, Shamanists, Christians, ecofeminists, and social ecologists,
as is evident from the literature.
Ecosophy T and Other Issues
Næss’s own personal philosophy, as already noted, is called Ecosophy T. In
his writings he describes the influences from which he formed this philosophy.
They include Spinoza, Gandhi, Mahayana Buddhism, and
Norwegian friluftsliv. (The latter is the Scandinavian practice of Nature oriented
outdoor activities; see Gelter paper in this volume.) The T (in
Ecosophy T) refers to the name of his hut in the mountains of Norway,
Tvergastein, possibly so named for the type of rocks found around it, or
because a rock cross marker was once there. The T might also stand for the
Norwegian word “tolkning” which means interpretation, a concept that is
central to Næss’s major work on language and communication entitled
Preciseness and Interpretation (1953). (This book will be republished in the
Selected Works of Arne Næss due from Kluwer in 2000.)
Næss’s Ecosophy T has as its most basic norm “Self-realization for all
beings!” If we reflect on Self realization, we will inquire into the nature of
the self. Næss distinguishes between the small ego self and the larger ecological
Self. He says we can gain a sense for this larger Self by extending our
identification through caring. His own Ecosophy was worked out at
Tvergastein high on Mt. Hallingskarvet, a place of extreme Arctic conditions.
Næss does not urge everyone else to adopt his ultimate philosophy, but to
develop their own ecosophies appropriate to their specific place. He hopes
Education for Local and Global Ecological Responsibility 71
people from different religious and philosophical backgrounds will support
the platform of the Deep Ecology Movement. His ecosophy supports
many other grassroots movements, such as the social justice, world peace,
and ecofeminist movements. If people live in a Buddhist country, and are
followers of Buddha, they can see how to support the platform from
Buddhist teachings. They can formulate and support policies that will
help to mitigate and prevent environmental degradation in their own
place and area. They feel empowered to take certain practical actions
knowing others are trying to support such principles in their own places and
actions. Exactly what policies and actions depends upon their own personal
history and cultural context. No single solution can be applied to every
place. Næss likes to say, “The more diversity, the better.” For example, the
wise vernacular practices of ecoagriculture and ecoforestry are not machine
standardized monocultures (Drengson & Taylor, 1997). Their common
ground is a set of principles that entail a diversity of practices in harmony
with local conditions, cultures, and ecological communities. The overall
approach is to fit ourselves to our watersheds and specific places (ecos).
Næss notes that we cannot resolve the environmental crisis by imposing
a single ecological worldview on every Earth dweller. This is an unsound
approach for many reasons. There is not time. It will not work. Most importantly,
it is wrong to try to force people to hold a certain worldview or religion.
Moreover, diversity adds to the richness and goodness of our lives and
to the richness of planet Earth. While we must work across cultural boundaries
to resolve problems of international scope, we also need to focus on
the way we live in our own particular places. Our quality of life depends
on the quality of the relationships that we create with other humans and
beings. It depends on our own level of emotional and intellectual maturity,
and these depend on the breadth and depth of our concern and care, and not
on who is the most competitive or number one (Kohn, 1992).
Diversity in Ultimate Philosophies and Practices
Suppose one accepts the eight platform principles as stated above, and questions
deeply down to the level of his or her own ultimate values and philosophy.
My ecosophy has grown out of Christian, Norwegian and North
American culture—which includes Aboriginal elements, and also from
Taoist, Shinto and Buddhist influences. For me the core Christian teachings
in the Sermon on the Mount have much in common with other spiritual traditions
that teach respect for all beings. Christianity is a multifaceted religion
with a complex history. Some interpretations of Christian scriptures
72 Alan Drengson
seem to support human power to take control of the world and reshape it
for our own exclusive benefit (White, 1967). Other interpretations, however,
are not compatible with such actions (Fox, 1988). The ethic of love taught
by Christ must be expressed in the flesh of our embodied lives; this is the
essence of Christian spiritual practice. Reinterpreting Christianity ecocentrically
is now a dynamic area called ecotheology.
Many peoples’ ultimate philosophies are based exclusively on such religious
traditions as Taoism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Shintoism, Hinduism,
Islam, Shamanism, and Neo Paganism. All of these spiritual traditions have
at least one recognized interpretation emphasizing humility, love for others,
and respectful treatment for all beings. Mahayana Buddhism, Shinto and
Taoism explicitly stress respect for other beings and emphasize that we must
live in harmony with and in gratitude to them, even if we must consume some
of them. They stress that we are all intimately interrelated. What we do to the
world, we ultimately do to ourselves. If I intentionally harm another, I also
harm my spiritual self. The ecocentric version is that if I harm the Earth, I also
harm myself. These principles are widely observed in different traditions.
If a person has no traditional religious background, they can create their
own ultimate philosophy based on ecocentric principles. They can call their
own philosophy “Ecosophy X,” where for x they can use whatever name
seems best to them. The number of possible ecosophies is very large, but each
is also place specific. To keep one’s home place in mind means dwelling in
it, staying there for life. Making a commitment to stay in and care for a
place also usually requires making a commitment to staying together as families,
to keeping our communities alive and well, and to caring for our land.
Aperson can work on perfecting their own ecostery (from ecos for place and
stery from monastery) either alone or with others. An ecostery is a place where
ecosophies are learned, practiced and taught. It is an evolutionary place
with increasing ecological harmony and wisdom. We work in our own particular
place to live our ecosophy, and as we realize it our places become beautiful.
We never stop learning or adapting in this process since ecological places
are of unlimited depth and complexity. They are also ever changing.
Deep Questioning in Business
Business as usual is being questioned not only by supporters of the long
range Deep Ecology Movement. The recent “mean and lean” philosophy of
top down management control in vogue, especially in North America, is
being criticized in business and management studies. Many say that it has
failed in many areas except in generating short term profits. They claim that
Education for Local and Global Ecological Responsibility 73
many companies have become anorexic by getting rid of so many employees.
These companies’ basic problems are partly a result of lacking a
coherent philosophy based on values recognizing social and ecological
responsibilities. Leading edge business management theorists say that what
is most important is wisdom, moral and natural values, and not just the
accountant’s bottom line. Profit should not be the only purpose of business.
Business should serve higher ends. Economics should not be the main purpose
of life. There should be soul in business (Secretan, 1995; Dalla Costa,
1995). It is observed in writings, talks, and consultations that companies who
value only the bottom line become destructive of people, society and nature.
Thus, managers are urged to reclaim the higher ground, and to question
deeply into their values, so as to clarify their personal philosophy and that
of their companies. These critics say that taking a wider view leads to the
unavoidable conclusion that companies must be in business for higher values
and not just for profit. They owe it to their workers, customers, society,
and the Earth. They say companies should use bottom up leadership and creative
initiatives, and jettison the older power hierarchies, if they are to realize
their best potentials and be in harmony with their context.
World Trade and Globalization
The forces of globalization, with their monoculturing power, have also
been deeply criticized by Third World writers and activists such as Helena
Norberg-Hodge (1991) and Vandana Shiva (1993) (see also Mander and
Goldsmith, 1996). It is argued that we must bring these forces under control
so that they do not destroy biological and cultural diversity and the traditions
that support them. The work done in the four great movements of this century,
the Social Justice, Peace, Environmental, and Appropriate Technology
Movements, advance the aim of creating a world of international cooperation
based on universal principles of civility that respect, recognize, and help
to protect and restore the cultural and biological diversity needed to resolve
environmental and social crises. Trade is an important way to expand relationships
only if responsible. It must not be governed by undemocratic
means for the exclusive benefit of special interests. The values and principles
must be democratically upheld and socially and ecologically responsible.
Final Words
According to Næss and others, the platform of the long range Deep Ecology
Movement does not describe an ultimate philosophy, but a platform for
74 Alan Drengson
multilevel cooperative and practical policies and actions. Thus, Næss calls
those who endorse the platform SUPPORTERS of the long range Deep
Ecology Movement, NOT deep ecologists—the latter term he regards as too
immodest. It is a platform for international agreement and multicultural
cooperation. It enables us to get to the roots of the environmental crisis in
our own particular places and selves. It requires that we not go on with business
as usual, and that we make fundamental ecologically responsible
changes in education, international institutions, trade agreements, resource
use practices, development models, and in our personal lives. If these
changes are guided by the platform principles they will emphasize respect
for all intrinsic values and for diversity. If we formulate policies and actions
guided by these principles, we will help to further a local and global consensus
for cooperative solutions to social and environmental problems.
Notes
1 Adifferent version of this paper was published in Environmental Ethics and
Environmental Education: Living together with Nature, Proceedings of the
International Symposium on Ethics and the Environment held at Konan
University in Kobe, Japan, 1996, pp. 45-60.
2 http://trumpeter.athabascau.ca; http://ecoforestry.ca; www.Turningpoint.org;
www.ifg.org; www.naturalstep.org; www.rprogress.org; www.gpiatlantic.org;
www.deep-ecology.net; http://www.ecospherics.net; www.twp.org; www.deepecology.
org; www.nwei.org; www.landinst_development.midkan.net;
www.isis.csuhayward.edu; www.naturalcapitalism.org; www.ecostery.org
Notes on Contributor
Alan Drengson is Emeritus Professor of Philosophy at the University of
Victoria, Victoria, B.C., Canada. He is one of the founders and a former
director of its Environmental Studies Program. He is the founding editor of
two quarterlies, The Trumpeter: Journal of Ecosophy and Ecoforestry. He has
co-edited three anthologies, The Philosophy of Society (Methuen, 1978), The
Deep Ecology Movement (North Atlantic Books, 1995), and Ecoforestry: The Art
and Science of Sustainable Forest Use (New Society Publishers, 1997). He is the
author of Beyond Environmental Crisis (Peter Lang, 1989), Doc Forest and Blue
Mountain Ecostery (Ecosophy House, 1993), and The Practice of Technology
(SUNY, 1995). He is writing a book on wild journeying.
Education for Local and Global Ecological Responsibility 75

 

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هناك 10 حروف من أصل 28 حرف باللغة العربية مستحيل أن تجد إسماً لإنسان عربي لايوجد به أحد هذه الحروف .
والحروف هي ( ب ، س ، م ، ا ، ل ، هـ ، ر ، ح ، ن ، ي ) .
جربوا مهما حاولتم لن تجدوا أبدا أي إسم عربي لايحوي على احد هذه الحروف، دققوا فيها قليلا تجدوها احرف جملة ( بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم ) .
فسبحان الله العظيم أعجز البشر حتى بالحروف دقق ايها الانسان فيما اختاره الله لك فلابد ان تجد الاعجاز حولك في كل مكان حتى في نفسك .
سبحان الله و بحمده..
 

ابداع الخالق المصور

ابداع الخالق المصور

صور للنهر الأجمل في العالم(نهر Cano Cristales في كولومبيا ..)

بقية الصور نهر   Cano Cristales في كولومبيا ..

على الرابط التالي:

http://forum.arabia4serv.com/t54513.html


لا تملك الا ان تقول سبحان الله

من اجمل ما تلقيت من رسائل 1

قصة مؤثرة 1

نماذج وكتب


 

نماذج البيانات والمعلومات الاحصائية المطلوب  تعبئتها من كليات التربية باأقسامها المختلفة(عربي)

نموذج استمارة البيانات (عربي)

نموذج استمارة البيانات (انجليزي)

متطلب تاهيل البرنامج للاعتماد


هل أنت متوتر ؟

هذه الصورة فى الأصل  ثابتة
ولكن كل إنسان يراها على حسب نسبة التوتر الداخلى الذى يشعر به
 فلو شاهدها الإنسان ثابتة إذاً فهو إنسان معتدل فكرياً و لا يوجد لديه أى شىء من التوتر النفسى أمّا لو الإنسان شاهدها تتحرك ببطء فهو لديه توتر نفسى خفيفأمّا لو الإنسان شاهدها تتحرك بسرعة فهو لديه توتر نفسى و غير  مستقر  فكرياً  

 هل انت متوتر؟

 

رابط مجلة بحوث ودراسات جودة التعليم

رابط بمجلة حوث ودراسات جودة التعليم

للتحميل

من هنا

http://vb.naqaae.eg/naqaae3152/

•تحفيز الطلاب على التعلم (عرض تقديمي د/ عبدالعزيز الريس

تحفيز الطلاب على التعلم (عرض تقديمي د/ عبدالعزيز الريس

قصة اعجبتني(اعمل بإخلاص مهما كان الوضع)

كان هناك رجل بناء يعمل في أحدى الشركات لسنوات طويلة ، فبلغ به العمر أن أراد ان يقدم إستقالته ليتفرغ لعائلته ، فقال له رئيسه : سوف أقبل أستقالتك بشرط أن تبني مَنْزلا أخيراً ،فقبل الرجل العرض على مضض ،وأسرع في بناء المنزل دون (( تركيز وإتقان))  ثم سلم مفاتيحه لرئيسه . فابتسم رئيسه وقال له : هذا المنزل هدية نهاية خدمتك للشركة طوال السنوات الماضية  .. فصدم الرجل وندم ندماً شديداً أنه لم يتقن بناء منزل العمر .. " هكذا  العبادة التى تكون على مضض وسرعة من غير تركيز وخشوع "
اعلم أن عبادتك في النهاية لك وليست لله ..
( فالله غني عن عبادتك ).

حكمة اليوم

حاول أن تعمل ما بوسعك للحاق بقافلة الصالحين التي ستعود إلى ”وطننا الجميل“ الواسع ولا تضيع وقتك فالوقت محدود

جل جلاله

جودة التعليم والحياة

مقالات مفيدة  في مجال جودة التعليم والحياة

راجع الرابط التالي

http://vb.naqaae.eg/naqaae3396/

 

حكمة اليوم (الخير أصيل)

لا تعاشر نفسا شبعت بعد جوع فإن الخير فيها دخيل وعاشر نفسا جاعت بعد شبع فإن الخير اصيل .. اغلق اذانك إذا كنت لا تستطيع إغلاق افواه الاخرين .. لا تقاس العقول بالاعمار فكم من صغير عقله بارع وكم من كبير عقله فارغ ألاحترام فن ليس كل من تعلمه اتقنه . المال يجلب لك اصدقاء المصلحه والجمال يجلب لك اصدقاء الشهوه اما الاخلاق فتجلب لك اصدقاء العمر .لا تتاخر بالصفح عن الاخريناجعل خطواتك في الحياة كمن يمشي على الرمل لا يسمع صوته ولكن اثره واضح .

كما تزرع تحصد

إذا زرعت الأمانة فستحصد الثقة

إذا زرعت الطيبة فستحصد الأصدقاء

إذا زرعت التواضع فستحصد الاحترام

إذا زرعت المثابرة فستحصد الرضا

إذا زرعت التقدير فستحصد الاعتبار

إذا زرعت الاجتهاد فستحصد النجاح

إذا زرعت الإيمان فستحصد الطمأنينة

لذا كن حذرا اليوم مما تزرع لتحصد غدا
وعلى قدر عطائك في الحياة تأتيك ثمارها

قصة اعجبتني الإبن الأسير


)رجل عجوز يعيش لوحده
 ... رغب أن يزرع البطاطس في حديقة منزله
 و لكنه لا يستطيع لكبر سنه
 فارسل لابنه الأسير رسالة
 هذه الرسالة تقول :
 ... —
 ابني الحبيب أحمد
 تمنيت أن تكون معي الآن
 و تساعدني في حرث الحديقة لكي أزرع البطاطس
 فليس عندي من يساعدني
 و بعد فترة استلم الأب الرسالة التالية :
 —
 أبي العزيز
 أرجوك
 إياك أن تحرث الحديقة
 لإني أخفيت فيها شيئا مهمّا
 عندما أخرج من المعتقل سأخبرك ما هو
 (ابنك أحمد)
 —
 لم تمض ساعة على الرسالة و إذ برجال الموساد و الإستخبارات
 و الجيش يحاصرون المنزل و يحفرونه شبرا شبرا
 فلما لم يجدوا شيئا غادروا المنزل
 
وصلت رسالة للأب من ابنه في اليوم التالي :
 —
 أبي العزيز
 أرجو أن تكون الأرض قد حُرثت بشكل جيد
 فهذا ما استطعت أن أساعدك به
 و إذا احتجت لشيء آخر أخبرني
 و سامحني على التقصير

 

 

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