د/سعيد طه محمود أبو السعود

أستاذ أصول التربية ورئيس مركز الجودة كلية التربية بالزلفي

لغة العنف

لغة العنف

 

 

 


Report of the UNESCO Youth Forum


‘Language as Violence, Violence as Language’


9-12 August 2004 


Prepared by

Section for Youth, BSP

 

 


3rd World Youth Festival

Forum of Cultures 2004

Barcelona
 

Table of Contents

 

Acknowledgements iii
Executive Summary iv
1. Introduction 1
2.1. Violence as a Daily Language in Youth Reality (9 August 2004) 2
2.2.  Violence and Media (10 August 2004) 4
2.3.  Expression of Violence as a Substitute for Communication (11 August 2004) 6
2.4. Alternative Languages to Violence (12 August 2004) 7
3. Conclusions 9
Plenary Sessions 10
Workshops 10
Cultural side events 10
Annexe 13

 

 
Acknowledgements

This report was prepared by a team led by Ms Maria Helena Henriques Mueller, chief of the Section for Youth of the Bureau of Strategic Planning. 

All the preparatory tasks in organizing the UNESCO Youth Forum ‘Language as violence, violence as language’ have been assumed by Chief BSP/YTH and Mr Luis Claret. Ms Cristina Albarran joined the Section for Youth later on and took over  the full responsibilities of Luis Claret in June 2004. The core organizing team was supported in August 2004 by Ms Jacqueline Groth (BSP/YTH) and Mr Dulat Kasymov (BSP/YTH). Ms Reiko Yoshida (ERC/NCP/PTS) joined the team for the event in Barcelona as a speaker on the first plenary session and was responsible for taking notes in plenary sessions and the drafting of the final report.

The success of the Forum is a fruit of close collaboration between UNESCO staff and 25 local and international volunteers who worked as one team under the leadership of Ms. Henriques Mueller.  The Section for Youth is deeply grateful to the outstanding efforts of Ms Laia Coral (Catalan Federation of UNESCO Clubs and Centers), who mobilized and coordinated the team of volunteers. The volunteers’ hard work contributed greatly to the visibility of the UNESCO Youth Forum within the 3rd World Youth Festival, assured a balanced share of tasks and resulted in an inspiring team spirit. 


Finally, we would like to thank the more than 60 speakers, artists and support staff, who were willing and motivated to share their experience, art and best practice with the young people, youth organisations and adults present during the Forum’s debates. Their invaluable contribution has helped make this Forum a dynamic space for lively encounters and open dialogue on violence in contemporary society. Without their exceptional commitment and energy, this Forum would not have been the same.

 


 
Executive Summary

1. The UNESCO Youth Forum ‘Language as Violence, Violence as Language’,  organized by the Section for Youth of the Bureau of Strategic Planning, was held in Barcelona from 9 to 12 August 2004 as part of the 3rd World Youth Festival . The World Youth Festival, itself part of the Forum of Cultures Barcelona 2004, is the only meeting place entirely designed and run by youth organizations;  a unique opportunity for regional youth associations and organisations from all over the world to share ideas and objectives and debate issues affecting young people.

2.  ‘Language as Violence, Violence as Language’ aimed to enable young people, representatives of youth organizations and other interested individuals to discuss the manifold forms of violence that young people encounter, perceive and express in their daily social environment and most importantly, to actively explore and develop ‘alternative languages to violence.’ The Forum involved a total of 60 speakers, artists and support staff, 5 UNESCO staff and consultants and 25 international volunteers from 10 countries mobilized by Catalan Federation of UNESCO Center and Clubs and the ‘International Youth Network for Peace-Building’. The plenary sessions and workshops were attended by an average total of 150 participants each day, participants in our concerts and other cultural performances doubled that number.

3. Each day of the Forum began with a plenary session where invited guest speakers gave a short presentation followed by a panel discussion with the audience based on a question/answer format.  The four themes discussed in the Forum were: 1) ‘Violence as a Daily Language in Youth Reality’; 2)’Violence and Media’; 3) ‘Expression of Violence as a Substitute for Communication’; and 4) ‘Alternative Languages to Violence.’  Simultaneous interpretation was made available for the Spanish, English, French, Catalan speakers, which enabled active participation of the linguistically and culturally diverse audience.   During the discussions, questions and answers flew naturally and significantly enhanced the impact of the presentations.

4. In the afternoons, workshops were conducted  by each speaker who gave a presentation in the morning.  While some of the workshops took the form of a more formal presentation, most of them were activity-based.  Although each workshop bore valuable discussion and exchange of information, it was sensed that activity-based workshops were the preferred form of presenting information to youth in this Forum. 


5. As cultural side events, various activities such as Tango and poetry performances, clown performances, Hip-Hop, Rap, graffiti, and Capoeira were held, attracting a great number of audience in the Youth Festival site.  The success of the concerts (and other performances) confirmed that an arts-based methodology to convey messages to youth is effective and highly appreciated by young people. 

 

6. There are several points that could be improved in the future. First of all,  evaluation forms must be provided in several languages in order to ensure meaningful evaluation results.  The content of the evaluation form should also be revised in order to obtain maximum inputs from the participants.  For example, there should be more multiple choice type of questions.

 

7. The organisers of the 3rd World Youth Festival were somewhat reluctant to involve adult’s organizations and intergovernmental institutions in the Youth Festival as they considered it as their own ‘space’ and did not consider the support of adults necessary.  As a result, Ms. Henriques Mueller was the only senior representative from the UN Organizations invited to address the opening plenary session (speech attached).

8. An important point to consider is the maximization of media coverage and visibility. The UNESCO Youth Forum was included in the official Festival programme, but did not receive any mention in the daily newsletter or other promotional activities. Media coverage was restricted to several interviews with Chief BSP/YTH for UN radio and Radio Catalonia. In the future, a team member should be appointed to assure the contact with local press and media in order to allow for adequate coverage and publicity of the event.

9. The UNESCO Youth Forum was an outstanding success creating dynamic discussions between a diverse audience and the invited speakers.  Informal talk with the speakers after the Forum revealed that they also learned a great deal out of the comments made by the audience.  Thus, the Forum served as an event where mutual exchange of information and ideas took place benefiting not only the participants but also the ‘experts’.  

10. The proposed and explored ‘alternative languages’ to violence include: the development of interpersonal communication skills, promotion of non-competitive sports, cultivation of appreciation toward artistic creation, Tango as a form of expression and communication, music such as Hip-Hop as a way of organizing young people and sharing experience, inclusion of family and community in youth-focused programmes, and promotion of non-formal education to foster social inclusion (e.g. the Brazilian ‘Making Room’-programme which opens up schools to the community over the week-ends for socio-cultural uses).

11. The overall operation of the UNESCO Youth Forum must be considered a success because the Forum was able to attract a great number of people despite the fact that the daily programme did not list the activities of the UNESCO Youth Forum.  Regarding this point, the enormous effort that UNESCO volunteers made for advertising of the UNESCO activities must be highlighted.  They all worked hard and deserve heartfelt thanks. 

12. The success of the Forum is also attributed to the UNESCO staff who worked continuously for months in order to ensure the success of the Forum.  While individual staff should be congratulated for the successful execution of the Forum, the leadership of Ms. Henriques Mueller must be mentioned.  Her attention to people’s suggestions and her effort to create an inclusive team spirit was the key to the success of the Forum. 


 
1. Introduction

The UNESCO Youth Forum ‘Language as Violence, Violence as Language’ , organized by the Section for Youth of the Bureau of Strategic Planning, was held in Barcelona from 9 to 12 August 2004 as part of the 3rd World Youth Festival . The World Youth Festival, itself part of the Forum of Cultures 2004, is the only meeting place entirely designed and run by Youth organizations, a unique opportunity for regional youth associations and organisations from all over the world to share ideas and objectives and debate issues concerning and affecting young people.

The aim of the UNESCO Youth Forum was to enable young people, representatives of youth organizations, and other interested individuals to discuss the manifold forms of violence that young people encounter, perceive, and express in their daily social environment and most importantly, to actively explore and develop ‘alternative languages to violence.’

With exposure to violence (both physical and psychological) being on the increase and a strong feeling of general insecurity prevailing among many young people in today’s globalized societies, the character of violence as a primary mode of exchange seems to become reinforced.  This is especially the case in situations of absence or decline of other forms of communication.  There are multi-dimensions of violence such as the violence experienced/suffered by the young people (perception of violence) and the violence communicated by young people in their social environments (expression of violence), both aspects obviously being interdependent.

The primary objective of the Forum was therefore to shed some light on the multiple dimensions of the causes, contents, nature, and consequences of violence(s).  The Forum served as a unique opportunity to share and discuss with young people current research, practical experience and best practice.  By also presenting young people’s initiatives aimed at creating preventive and curative languages to violence, the Forum ultimately sought to contribute to the construction of an alternative ‘vocabulary,’ conducive to counteracting the culture of violence. The centrality of approaches based on arts and culture in communicating strong messages of tolerance and non-violence was in particular highlighted during the workshops and debates. 

Each day of the Forum began with a plenary session where invited guest speakers gave a short presentation followed by a panel discussion with the audience based on a question and answer format.  Simultaneous interpretation was made available for the Spanish, English, French, and Catalan speakers, which enabled active participation of the linguistically and culturally diverse audience. 

Workshops were conducted in the afternoon headed by each speaker who gave a presentation in the morning.  While some workshops took the form of a more formal presentation, most of them were activity-based.  Although each workshop bore valuable discussion and exchange of information, it was sensed that activity-based workshops were the preferred form of presenting information  to youth in this Forum. 

In addition to plenary sessions and workshops, various cultural side events were organised in different sites of the Forum.  Clown performances by ‘Oihulariklown’ took place in every plenary session and workshops.  Tango and poetry by Tango Bus was presented three times during the Forum.  Hip-Hop events included rap, break-dance and graffiti.  Out of these performances, Capoeira in particular drew a great number of audience and presented its performance twice in addition to two workshops that were conducted. 

This report describes the content of each panel discussion and briefly summarizes the main conclusion established for each sub-theme of the Forum as the result of plenary sessions and workshops.  It will focus in particular on the lessons learnt with regard to the construction and promotion of ‘alternative languages’ to violence and highlight potential future improvements.

Evaluation forms were distributed at each plenary session and workshop aiming to receive feedback from participants for future improvement.  The analysis of the evaluation will be presented separately from this report. 

 

2.1. Violence as a Daily Language in Youth Reality (9 August 2004)

The first day of the UNESCO Youth Forum was marked by an opening speech by Ms Maria Helena Henriques Mueller, Chief of UNESCO’s Section for Youth.  Chief BSP/YTH presented UNESCO’s strategy pertaining to youth, i.e. mainstreaming youth by considering young people as a resource (not a problem) and as a partner (not a target group). UNESCO’s strategy of action with and for youth is based on the view that concerns, visions, and contributions of youth must be acknowledged and taken into account.  Thus, the mission and objective of UNESCO’s youth activities is to empower youth so as to ensure their full potential and participation in society as equal and valuable partners. 

 Chief BSP/YTH also introduced the debate on violence as language. She proposed a series of conceptualizations of violence understood as an intrinsic form of communication, a way to be seen or heard, a form of domination, or collective forms of domination.  She then offered a broad definition of violence stating that ‘violence includes all actions and processes that prevent young people from developing their full potential or impact negatively on their development’.  Violence must not be seen as a personal, but rather as a social problem limiting and hindering young people’s development. Based on this definition, Chief BSP/YTH asserted that if violence is an action, so can be non-violence, and that it is important to work with young people on ‘active’ non-violence through education, culture, sports, and citizenship. 

Chief BSP/YTH highlighted the mission of the Forum which seeks to 1) analyze the multiple dimensions of the causes, contents, nature, and consequences of violence(s); 2) share and discuss with young people current research and practical experience; 3) present young people’s initiatives that contribute to the construction of an alternative ‘vocabulary’; and 4) organize salient best practice, conducive to counteracting the culture of violence.  She then opened the floor to the first speaker, Ms Marta Avancini (UNESCO/Brazil).

Ms Avancini specifically addressed phenomena of daily violence in youth reality as she observes them in her capacity as a researcher on youth issues of the UNESCO Office in Brasilia. Violence in its manifold forms is a constituent part of young people’s daily lives in Brazil.  The extreme form of physical violence is reflected in the high number of homicides with the rate of homicides among young people being much higher than for the average of the population. On the other hand, forms of  symbolic violence are widely prevalent: they operate through power structures such as social exclusion and cause psychological harm and also include institutional violence such as the denial of access to facilities (e.g. school and medical care) and structural violence in the form of extreme poverty (about 40 percent of young people live in families with the monthly income of only USD).  Given its various forms of manifestation, violence emerges as one of the main issues of concern and point of departure for UNESCO/Brazil’s projects and programmes.  Important in this respect is the fact that all approaches to violence must address the existing social structures of poverty and inequality (structural and institutional violences) in order to provoke a sustainable impact.  Ms Avancini in particular stressed that the voices and testimonies of young people should inform all projects and programmes countering violence and social exclusion.

Gender-based violence being another prevalent form of violence occurring as a social problem all over the world, there is a need for reinforced political commitment to address and overcome it. Ms Silvia Piris of the Basque NGO ‘Equating Genders’ (‘Pirekatzen’) pointed out that while there is a proliferation of concepts and terminologies when addressing violence inflicted on women, all of these terms seem to address one coherent phenomenon, namely the existence of gender-based inequalities among groups of people.  In media, for example,  more attention tends to be given to physical and sexual forms of violence; however, violence(s) against women are multifaceted and relate to language, historical violence, emotional, economic, and socio-cultural factors.  Explanations of this type of violence are also varied and bound to the specific socio-cultural context. However, with the focus given to individual cases and the consequences of acts of violence, calls for a strong political commitment to overcome gender-based violence in society are often evaded. Therefore, young people must be made and become more aware of the existing gender-based inequalities in society and the concepts of violence presented in specific social concepts, e.g. the concept of ‘the male’.


The theme of HIV/AIDS as violence inflicted on young people was addressed by Ms Reiko Yoshida (UNESCO/Paris). Approaching the issue from a cultural anthropology lens (i.e. understanding ‘culture’ as a dynamic and fluid concept, including all aspects of life such as ways of life, traditions and beliefs, value systems, gender relations, and representations of health and disease), culturally specific language may be considered violence against people who are infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in a form of direct and indirect stigma and discrimination.  HIV/AIDS emerges not only as a medical, but also as a social, political and economic problem which disproportionately affects young people because they are unprepared to protect themselves. For instance, young men may feel peer pressure to have sex without knowing how to protect their partners and themselves, while young women may be vulnerable to HIV/AIDS due to inequality and lack of power within sexual relationships.  Young people’s inclination to experiment is also a cause of their particular vulnerability to HIV/AIDS.  However, approaching HIV/AIDS from a cultural point of view also offers ways to change risky and/or discriminatory behavior. It is the messages from young people to other young people that must be considered being the most effective ones in this regard.

From the subsequent discussion and the activities organised in the workshops, it emerged that
 the concept of violence should not be too broad so as to not lose sight of its causes and potential ways to deal with it. However,  a rather broader concept of violence (including,  for example, suicide, drug abuse and teenage pregnancies as forms of violence specific to young people) is a strategic choice in order to pay more attention to ‘normal’ (in the sense of ‘accepted’) socio-cultural practices which should be challenged.  Particular consideration must be given to the specific cultural context when creating and adapting preventive messages. Saying ‘no’ to young people is never an effective means of prevention, but approaches to ‘violence’ must be varied and flexible in order to meet the challenge of a specific cultural and socio-economic context ‘on the ground’ and of highly diversified groups of young people.  Thereby, it is essential to also consider ‘violence’ expressed by the young person as a way of ‘defense’ against a social condition, in which discrimination is experienced as the most prevalent form of violence and a type of society which, following the argument of Manuel Castells, for the first time in history produces human beings that are made ‘irrelevant’ by larger processes at work. Terminologies of and approaches against violence therefore have to address existing inequalities in social structures and put the creation of ‘relevancies’ (i.e. spaces of self-expression and development not dependent on ‘access’) at its center.

 


2.2.  Violence and Media (10 August 2004)

Tanya Bosch, project manager of  community-based alternative radio station ‘Bush Radio’ in Cape Town, South Africa, opened the debate on the role of different media in promoting or preventing violence. The history of ‘Bush Radio’  goes back to the 1980s when media was highly controlled by the South African apartheid government and uncensored information was scarce.  The informal circulation of cassettes that contained interviews of people in exile calling for the end of the apartheid lay at the origin of the initiative.  After the end of the apartheid in 1994, Bush Radio became a registered alternative radio station and since then defines itself as a space for people from different communities to produce and disseminate information and communicate with each other.  Parting from the rationale that ‘[…] in media, a process is as important as a product’, Bush Radio does not broadcast advertisement of problematic sponsors and attempts to demonstrate sensitive broadcasting by e.g. utilizing gender sensitive language and involving different communities including young people (and children) in the process of making radio. Its ultimate aim is to foster interpersonal communication as a leverage for change.  Even in the age of internet, local alternative radio therefore has an important role to play since it is often the sole means of communication and information of poor communities with high rates of illiteracy. Often, these initiatives remain limited in scale due to their restricted local character, however, ‘though Bush Radio may only be a small wave, all these waves can combine and make a tsunami.’ 

The importance of grassroots media, here in addition understood as artistic forms of expression in the fight against violence was further highlighted by Ms Cristina Roca of ‘Musica Esperanza’. This Argentinean organization began its activities in 1983 trying to reach disadvantaged people and transform their quality of life through introducing them to aesthetics and artistic creation in order to open up new channels of self-expression.  The origins of ‘Musica Esperanza’’s activities lie in urban, marginalized areas where people lack quality education and unemployment is rampant.  ‘Musica Esperanza’ has set up a training programme for volunteers in arts education and over the years developed  appropriate methodologies for marginalised communities. In essence, music and theatre, literature and painting are considered as tools allowing people to find different ways of relating to others. ‘Musica Esperanza’ thereby starts working with children at a very early age (up to 5 yrs), since Broca believes that then children are  ‘like a sponge, absorbing every new information they receive.’ 

The practice of Tango was put forward as another intervention  for disarming violence(s) by Mr Diego Lopez of ‘Tango Bus’ (Argentina). The history of tango reflects the history of Argentina as an immigrant country.  When immigrants arrived from Spain, Italy, and other places, they needed a common ‘language’ to communicate with each other and aboriginal people, and tango emerged as a grassroots, hybrid form of expression, breaking a language barrier and mediating cultural differences.  Given the history of tango  and  the various social and political upheavals it witnessed (tango was banned during the 1970s and 1980s),  tango as a practice can help fill the gap between different generations of people, teach people respect for tradition and gender equality, and open up their minds.  Tango therefore is a rewarding starting point to work with young people, since it both constitutes a form of expression which offers a reference point for the development of  social and cultural identity to young people and preserves cultural heritage.

Mr Didier Roustand of the French NGO ‘Foot Citoyen,’ presented on the issue of ‘Fighting against Violence in Sport’.  Working as a sports journalist, he reflected on the fact that football games contain many violent elements even at an amateur level. With the  lack of communication between parents and children being a common phenomenon in contemporary society, children and young people become increasingly receptive to the information provided on TV. The frequent  presentation of violent imagery on TV  may have made young people come to understand that violence is normal or ‘acceptable’.  Based on these phenomena, ‘Foot Citoyen’ decided to focus on the practice of football as a way of promoting values such as self-respect, respect of authority and certain regulations, and awareness of other people’s problems.  The aim of this initiative is to offer to young people and others involved (such as coaches and parents) different ways of understanding and communicating with each other through the promotion of ‘fair play’ and of non-competitive forms of sports.   


From the presentations and discussion on the  issue of violence and media, it thus has become obvious that there are several levels of interrogation. First of all, there is the need to critically question one-dimensional information and representations in mainstream media and its social impacts. With the means of communication not being violent in themselves, they can exert a form of violence when imposing a given message and not allowing for dialogue and impartial information. Young people, therefore, need to become aware of the negative influence these media may have, but equally of their power to generate and to lobby for different, participatory ways of conveying messages conducive to mediate social interaction. Initiatives which aim to raise critical awareness of the functioning and use of the mass media need to be reinforced (starting with their integration in school curricula) and mainstreamed. For youth it becomes all the more important to occupy the media as a space promoting the encounter of people following common objectives. 

Secondly, when discussing the potential of media to initiate positive social change, it is essential to keep in mind that different types of media target different groups of people. However, no matter the format (radio, TV, dance, music or painting), it is the message transmitted which has the potential to provoke change and,  for the individual, to attain social and emotional maturity. The essence of all media fostering alternative languages to violence is therefore their power to create alternative spaces of interaction, to encourage dialogue and interpersonal relations notwithstanding the difference of impact provoked by a specific format. In this regard, the role of the radio cannot be underestimated since it reaches a broad audience and remains the most accessible source of information in marginalised communities.

 

 

 


2.3.  Expression of Violence as a Substitute for Communication (11 August 2004)

The third plenary session explored the theme of ‘Expression of Violence as a Substitute for Communication.’

The first speaker, Mr Juma Assiago of UN Habitat in Kenya, presented the approach UN Habitat applies to understand and challenge violence among young people. Youth violence is one of the most visible forms of violence in society, adding to the cost of basic services in a city. Thus, youth crime (defined as crimes committed by youngsters aged 12 to 25) has not ceased to increase with the average age of entrance into delinquency decreasing to 12 years. However, against all prevailing trends, this phenomenon must not be viewed in isolation from wider manifestations of violence in the city. Their programme attempts to break with the categorization of young people as mere perpetrators by instead considering them as a valuable resource and partners. The programme fosters ‘youth inclusion as alternative form of  communication to violence’:   it encourages the participation of young people in local urban governance, e.g. in participatory budgeting processes and makes municipal governments the key to enable young people’s involvement and empowerment.  

The pressing need to examine young people’s socio-economic environment when searching for the causes of violence was supported by Mr Michel Fize, researcher at the CNRS in France. His concept of intergenerational indifference as a form of violence stipulates that youth violence is a result of other violence(s) of which young people are the victims.  For instance, youth is the prime victim of institutional violence.  Since the labour market, for example, is difficult to enter for young people without formal qualifications and experience, the unemployment rate among young people is twice as high as the average rate.  The school environment, causing enormous competition amongst and pressure on young people, is another locus where institutional violence manifests itself.  Finally, the family may constitute the third type of institutional violence as many parents mistreat young people (e.g. physical and sexual violence or general indifference and non-communication).  The response to violence in our society must therefore part from a change in the way young people are viewed.
This change in perception  requires to accept that young people possess a variety of skills and a positive potential  to be tapped into. It is by trusting their skills, entrusting them with responsibilities and accepting them as full members of society, that a more participatory type of democracy can be attained. 

The specific language and impact of hip-hop culture as a form of communication among and with young people was examined by Ms Toni Blackman (US Ambassador of Hip-Hop Culture and member of the International Music Council). She stated that while there is a widely shared perception that music is a source of violence, she considers it as a way of social change.  Hip-Hop culture is an artistic expression, enabling people to communicate with each other. She supported this argument by outlining a brief history of Hip-Hop, which originally developed as a culture of resistance. When support to artistic programmes and public transportation for young people began ceasing to exist in the United States, young people started using Hip-Hop as a tool to organize themselves.  Hip-Hop is thus not only just a style of music but also a way to bring people together and reach people’s spirituality.  As such, it can serve as a powerful tool to bridge gaps between people from different backgrounds and convey messages to young people. 

The importance of the  development of non-violent communication methods was further underlined by Mr Joan Cortinas (Barcelona), who has been a consultant of  the Section for Youth of UNESCO working  on peace education and conflict resolution. He argued that in both peace education and conflict resolution,  it is important to develop:  1) an ability to analyze conflict not from an individual point of view but from a global perspective; 2) a listening skill in order to be able to look for the’ other’ in the act of communication; and 3) an ability to understand young people who are often portrayed as being violent. The information age (following the concept of sociologist Manuel Castells) is a worldwide phenomenon, socializing young people into images, interpretations, and realities.  Information is disseminated in a fragmentary way, based on images without any coherent logical structure and controlled by a minority. According to research done with young people living in ‘banlieues’ (‘suburbs’) in France, young people reported that the biggest problem that they face is the negative image that media portray of them.  Building on these findings, Mr Cortinas stressed that work on non-violent communication methods must begin with the development of communication skills which could facilitate better coordination of action.  He concluded by stating that in order to bring about social change, one must transgress thinking at an individual level and instead relate to a collective level. Efficient communication methods prone to countering the problem of violence are therefore those which offer tools for
detecting common preoccupations.

From the session’s animated discussion,  it emerged that young people in general are exposed to a language that is exclusive rather than inclusive.  However, ‘youth’ being a diverse and constantly changing group of people, the greater the necessity to include all stakeholders of society  in politics and action against violence and to use different messages and methodologies. Here, the significance of music and other forms of artistic expression lies in the fact that it can create forums of expression to transmit responsibility and to transgress  confined spheres of struggle. The arts therefore emerge as a form of expression which allows young people to connect with the public and socio-political processes at large.

2.4. Alternative Languages to Violence (12 August 2004)

The fourth and final plenary session focused on the theme ‘Alternative Languages to Violence.’ 

The first speaker, Ms Laia Corral of the Catalan Federation of UNESCO Clubs and Centers, introduced the ‘International Youth Network for Peace-Making (IYNPB).’  The IYNPB was born in 2001 with the aim to maintain a network of relations between young people from all over the world.  Its objective is to gather and publicize youth-driven initiatives for the construction of peace and democracy.  The IYNPB participants include people involved in youth organizations from all over the world.  The IYNPB is concerned about topics such as the environment, culture of peace, human rights, education, international cooperation, fight against poverty, inter-religious dialogue, development, and intercultural dialogue.  The network is maintained through e-mails and internet and by organizing a global meeting every 2 years and a regional meeting every year.  In short, the IYNPB serves as a coordination body, demonstrated by the fact that the volunteers for this UNESCO Youth Forum were recruited through its network. 

Mr Paulo Barbosa, Under Secretary of Education in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, presented a recent programme of the Government of Sao Paolo. The initiative, itself part of UNESCO/Brazil’s ‘Making Room’ programme operating in several of the Federal States of Brazil, was set up in 2003 and is based on the observation that for underprivileged young Brazilians, the only playground outside of schools hours was the street (due to the severe lack of recreational and educational infrastructures in poor neighborhoods). In this context, the Sao Paulo government decided to open up schools over the weekend for community activities which bring students and family together. University students are recruited as volunteers who in turn receive financial assistance towards their education. At present, 25,000 of these ‘scholarships’ are issued in the State of Sao Paolo: this allows operations in 5,306 public schools reaching 5,5 million students. The programme, meanwhile, costs a mere 0.30 Euros per pupil per month (for the Brazilian average) and is entirely free for the students.  Cultural programmes account for 32%, sports for 53% and vocational and health training for 11 and 4 %  of the activities organised. This programme has become a win-win situation with young people and their family members spending more time facilitating their communication and allowing those people who might otherwise not be able to pursue higher education to continue their studies at university.   So far, the ‘Making Room’ programme has produced impressive and encouraging statistics:  overall violence in schools participating in the initiative has dropped an average 60% with drug use, sexual aggression and carrying weapons also decreasing significantly.

The democratization of an infrastructure which fosters health and leisure activities to improve the quality of life of young people is also the objective of the Brazilian-based ‘Segundo Tempo’ (‘Second Half’) programme. Ms Marilda Poeiras and Mr Edson Danilo Massulo Lisboa, representatives of ‘SESI’ (Industry Social Service), emphasized that government, private  and non-governmental organisations must join forces in order to tackle lack of access to quality education for young people and create opportunities for civic education. The ‘Segundo Tempo’ programme, developed in partnership with UNESCO and the Ministry of Sports, serves children and adolescent from 7-17 years and aims at making play and sports an educational tool accessible for everyone through activities held during non-school hours. Through coordinated efforts between several institutional partners, a series of school-integrated activities (sport, tutoring, health education, art and nutritional supplements) are now being offered with the objective of reaching 40 million children and youth in 27 regional departments of Brazil  in the period 2004/2005.

The school environment is equally the starting point for the project ‘Democracy and Courage’, an initiative to fight racial discrimination and violence presented by Mr Christophe Berardi (Federation Leo Lagrange, France). This programme originated in the new federal states of Germany in response to an increase in right wing extremism and acts of xenophobic violence among youth. It is based on a methodology of non-formal education to be applied in schools by young volunteers. The methodology seeks to raise the critical awareness of young people on racial prejudice and racist discourse and to initiate the development of action projects.  In Germany, more than 600 youngsters have been trained as volunteers for ‘Democracy and courage’ so far reaching out to an estimated 30,000 young people in schools and youth organisations.   


In the concluding discussion, the emphasis was put once more on the necessity to include all stakeholders of society in processes which aim at democratizing access for all young people to infrastructures conducive to reversing the reality of exclusion and violence to which they are exposed. In essence, transformation of young people’s lives and creation of opportunities to acquire a critical citizenship  require cooperation of various actors, strong leadership, and the inclusion of the family and the community. Integrated leisure and sports activities emerged once more as a strong tool which indirectly reduces the exposure to high-risk situations among participants. However, several interventions stressed that it is important to keep a balance in promoting sports at school in order to avoid propagating excessive competitiveness, which in turn might  cause exclusion. 


 


3. Conclusions

The UNESCO Youth Forum ‘Language as Violence, Violence as Language’ can be considered a success because it was able to attract a great number of people despite the fact that its activities were not listed in the daily journal of the Festival and the promotions for main events.  Regarding this point, the effort that UNESCO volunteers made for advertising the Forum’s activities must be highlighted.  They all worked hard and deserve heartfelt thanks. 

The success of the Forum is also attributed to the UNESCO staff who worked continuously for months in order to ensure the success of the Forum.  While individual staff should be congratulated for the successful execution of the Forum, the leadership of Ms. Henriques Mueller must be highlighted. Her ability to communicate in several languages, the scheduling of daily meetings with volunteers and staff and her attention to participants’ suggestions contributed to creating an inclusive team spirit which was the key to the success of the Forum. 

Though the Forum was a success in many ways, there are several points that need to be considered and dealt with in the future when organizing a similar event. In the following, these elements will be highlighted  based on the different components of the Youth Forum.

On a more general note, it needs to be considered that:

1. The evaluation forms must be provided in several languages in order to ensure meaningful evaluation results.  The content of the evaluation form should also be revised in order to obtain maximum inputs from the participants.  For example, there should be more multiple choice type of questions.
2. More concerted efforts must be made to gain official visibility within the Youth Festival by working closely with the Youth Festival organizing body and appointing one person assuring media contacts (including the local media) and public relations.
3. Organizing joint activities with the organisers (e.g. National Youth Councils, International Preparatory Committee) according to specific themes might be a meaningful way to ensure UNESCO’s contribution in these kinds of events.

 

Plenary Sessions
• The selection of speakers from all over the world and different professional backgrounds (research, arts and culture, governmental institutions, NGOs) was a success, responding to  the diverse backgrounds of the audience/participants and contributing to a balanced exploration of the many dimensions of a highly complex theme.
• In order to save valuable time, three to four questions were collected before the speakers responded.  It was criticized that this format of taking questions prevented the panel discussions from taking a natural flow. However, the debate was at all times lively and animated and  the format applied allowed all speakers to participate equally in the debate.  

Workshops
• The workshops were extremely helpful in supporting the plenary discussions with concrete and more action-based activities. It was encouraging to witness the boundary between presenters and participants/audience being blurred and seeing all participants become involved in a more active and participatory way.
• It was suggested, however, that speakers should provide more information and background material in order to allow participants to  further work with the approaches and methodologies presented.
•  There was a general feeling shared by organizers that an informal workshop setting and activity-based workshops are the most effective way of conveying information to young people. More formalized workshops (close to formal school-based learning) were certainly useful, but less enjoyed by the majority of participants.
• The workshops providing participants with new practical skills (e.g. those of ‘Tango Bus’, Capoeira and ‘Musica Esperanza’)  deserve a special mention owing to their outstanding atmosphere and animation.  The Capoeira workshops, e.g., were especially popular and  attracted more than 60 participants on two days, making the fairly large workshop room small.  Those participants who arrived late voluntarily took off their shoes and eagerly joined the dance. 


Cultural side events
• Having clown performances in the midst of plenary sessions considerably eased ‘formal’ atmosphere and added emotional ‘content’ to the issues discussed.  To a large extent, this activity has succeeded in supporting the messages that emanated from the panel discussion and in addition gave  the impression that serious matters can take an ‘enjoyable’ side as well.  
• Additional clown performances within the Youth Festival site also contributed to drawing attention to the event and spreading the messages discussed in the plenary sessions to a wider audience who may or may not have participated in the UNESCO sessions. 
• The Capoeira performances were very popular drawing a great number of audience, resulting in additional (unscheduled) performances in various sites of the Forum. 
• The change of location of the Hip-Hop concert initially posed considerable logistical problems. However, the event was attended by a fairly large audience. In future, promotional efforts should be intensified and  time and location  be optimized.   In this Forum, the Hip-Hop concerts were held later in the evening (20h00) and in a concert stage which was a bit farther from the main auditorium. These factors might have prevented a considerable number of participants from attending the event.
• The performances of ‘Tango Bus’  were held in a friendly atmosphere.  Considering that there were a number of people who came up to the performers to ask questions at the end, the performers could be encouraged in the future to take some time for a short concluding discussion.  

 

In conclusion, we assume that presenters, UNESCO staff and participants of the UNESCO Youth Forum ‘Language as violence, violence as language’ were able to gain new insights into the multiple dimensions of the causes, contents, nature, and consequences of violence(s). 

In this regard, the strongest message having emerged from the debates is that it is the multiple violences apparent in contemporary society (in particular in the form of exclusion and lack of perspective experienced by many young people) that reverberate into violence expressed by the young person itself. Therefore, all initiatives tackling the problem must depart from an analysis of the socio-economic and cultural environments young people grow up in. This analysis cannot be limited to experts and institutions, but must actively consider and include the voices and testimonies of youth themselves. It is only by being accepted as equal partners and experts at their own value, that young people can acquire the critical social skills necessary for provoking change in their immediate surroundings.

All of the diverse ‘alternative languages’ to violence which were presented and explored during this Forum, include strong elements conducive to the empowerment of the young person. Whether it is the training in interpersonal communication skills, promotion of non-competitive sports, the cultivation of appreciation toward artistic creation, Tango as a form of expression and communication, music such as Hip-Hop as a way of organizing young people and sharing experiences or the practice of Capoeira, it is the generation of social and individual  ‘relevancies’ that appears as the overall issue that is at stake in these endeavors.

The Forum also illuminated once more that violence can only be tackled by concerted efforts comprising all stakeholders of society: these must include political authorities and governmental institutions,  the family and community as well as the private and civil society sector. Eventually, it is young people that are the strongest agents in disseminating messages fostering a culture of non-violence and cooperation to their peers. Providing them with the capacities and resources necessary to do so is therefore the pre-condition for success.

 

 
Annexe
Biographical information: Speakers

9 August 2004 ‘Violence as a daily language in youth reality’

• Avancini, Marta (Researcher, UNESCO/Brazil)
Unesco Setor de Pesquisa e Avaliação
SAS    Quadra 5     Bloco K (Edifício OK Office Tower)    Sala 201
71070-050          Brasília/DF
Brasil
Phone : +55-61-322-0061
Fax : +55-61-322-0061
Email : [email protected]
Ms Marta Avancini works in the UNESCO office in Brasilia as a researcher. Her main activity consists in producing researches about themes related to youth, violence and citizenship in Brazil. She is Master in Social History and has worked as a journalist, specialized in social issues (particularly education) for major newspapers in Brazil. Her main interests are the issues related to violence and youth, because these themes involve a series of questions – which vary from social exclusion to cultural expressions - essential to understand the condition of youth in contemporary world. She believes her contribution to the Forum will be focused on sharing with everyone interested in knowing more about the ideas, needs and perceptions of youth from a South American country, more specifically Brazil, in other to enrich the debate about the youth condition in contemporary world.


• Piris Lecuona,  Silvia (Gender Issues Expert)
‘Parekatzen Elkartea’
Phone : 690-353749
Email : [email protected]
Ms. Silvia Piris Lecuona works for the ‘Parekatzen Elkartea’ Association. The activities of this non-profit association focus on education and sensitivity training relating to gender issues. After completing her education in sociology, she obtained a Master’s Degree in International Development Cooperation and Gender Issues. She has recently been directly involved in the follow up of gender projects in Latin America ( Sexual Rights of Women with HIV/AIDS and interfamilial violence). Her contribution to the Forum will focus on integrating an anthropological understanding of culture into the way young people think about gender violence. 


• Yoshida, Reiko (UNESCO/ McGill University, Montreal, Canada)
7, place de Fontenoy
75352 Paris 07 SP
France
Phone :  33-1-45-68-1233
Fax :  33-1-45-68-5440
Email :  [email protected]
Ms. Reiko Yoshida works as a young professional in UNESCO.  After completing an MA degree in anthropology, she decided to pursue a doctoral research at McGill University, Canada, on the topic of sexuality education and HIV/AIDS preventive education.  While continuing her doctoral studies, she works in the Culture Sector of UNESCO on a cultural approach to HIV/AIDS prevention and care.  Her contribution to the Forum will focus on bringing anthropological understanding of culture into the thinking of young people when tackling the issues of violence and HIV/AIDS.
 


10 August 2004 ‘Violence and Media’

• Bosch, Tanja E. (Dr.), (Station  Manager, Bush Radio South Africa)
Bush Radio
330 Victoria Road, Salt River, 7945. Cape Town. South Africa.
Phone :  +2721 4485450
Fax :  +2721 4485451
Email :  [email protected]
Dr. Tanja Bosch works as the station manager of Bush Radio in Cape Town, the oldest community radio project in Africa. She works on coordinating the range of programmes that Bush Radio offers the community of the Cape Flats area in Cape Town. Dr Bosch’s doctoral dissertation from Ohio University in the U.S., is entitled « Radio, community and identity in South Africa : A rhizomatic study of Bush Radio in Cape Town ».
Her main research interests are qualitative research methodologies, entertainment-education and critical theory. Her contribution to the Forum will focus on issues of language and violence in South Africa, and how this intersects with radio.


• Roca, Cristina Maria (Professor of Art, Painting, Drawing and Sculpture0
‘Musica Esperanza’
Hilarion Plaza 4149, Cerro de las Rosas
Cordoba, Argentina
Phone: +35 1 48 18830
Ms. Roca is an artist who works with a variety of mediums. She works with ‘Musica Esperanza’ on capacity building projects and she is also a professor of painting at the Escuela Superior de Bellas Artes Dr. José Figueroa Alcorta, in Córdoba, Argentina. Her main interest is bringing art to people who previously did not have the access or ability to create and study art because she believes that art awakens deep emotions and also sparks feelings of sensitivity and solidarity among all human beings. Her contribution to the forum will focus on the philosophy behind the ‘Calidoscopio’ programme, a programme addressed to those in charge of the education of children between the ages of 0-5. This non-formal education programme uses different forms of creative expression, such as theatre, music, art and literature, through games in order to create educational spaces, communication alternatives and strengthened relationships. This programme was first started in underprivileged areas in the city of Cordoba, Argentina.


• Roustan, Didier (Journalist / President of ‘Foot Citoyen’)
579 avenue du Prado 13008 Marseille
Phone :  04 91 32 65 20
Fax :  04 91 71 59 63
Email :  [email protected]
Website: www.footcitoyen.org
Didier Roustan works in television. His main interest is football because he played as young football player at a high level (AS Cannes) until the age of 18. He then decided to become a football journalist and has since worked for TF1 (1976/1989), Canal + (1989/1992), France Television (1992/1995) and ‘l’Equipe TV’ (1999/2004). In 1995, Didier Roustan created - together with players such as Maradona, Cantona, Rai, Weah, Stoichkov and others - an International Football Players Association (AIFP). The aim of this association is to defend players against the institutions (FIFA, UEFA, etc) and to support football players from all over the world. With the association,  he organized two games against racism, one held in Barcelona in April 1997 and another one held in Madrid, in association with the European Commission, in October 1997.
His contribution to the Forum will focus on violence in sport, in football and on the role of the association ‘Foot Citoyen’ in educating young people through football.

 

 

 

• Villagra,  Lucia and Lopez,  Diego (‘TANGO BUS’- cultural programme for youth integration)
‘TANGO BUS’
Rivadavia 46, piso 9°, Departamento B, San Isidro,
Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Phone : 5411 4743 90 32
Email : [email protected]
Lucia Villagra and Diego Lopez work for TANGO BUS. They are professional dancers and tango instructors and also work to promote the diverse aspects of the tango culture through various conferences and educational centers. They were trained at the National Academy of Tango. Lucia and Diego wish to portray the tango as an example of respect for cultural diversity, with the values and the symbolism of their 'hug' as a non-violent language. Diego and Lucia’s contribution to the Forum will focus not only on demonstrating and teaching their art but it will also be a personal testimony of non violent language and respect for cultural diversity.

 

11 August 2004 ‘Expression of violence as a substitute for communication’

• Assiago, Juma (Urban Safety Expert, ‘Youth at Risk’)
UN HABITAT
Address: P.O.BOX 30030 NAIROBI 0100
Phone : +254 20 62 37 71
Fax : +254 20 62 35 36
Email : [email protected]
Mr. Assiago works in UN HABITAT headquarters in Nairobi as an Urban Safety Expert (since 2000). His activity consists of developing approaches contributing to UN-HABITAT’s normative base on youth issues within the Global Campaign on Urban Governance.  Mr. Assiago’s responsibilities include piloting crime prevention activities at city level, policy development, capacity and knowledge building involving all urban stakeholders and consolidating good practices for youth crime prevention. He is also credited for pioneering a greater focus on youth issues within UN HABITAT including lobbying member states for the creation of the newly established Partners and Youth Section that is resulting in the development of a strategy of engagement of youth in the work of UN HABITAT. Mr. Assiago’s  main interest is to project vulnerable youth as assets and not as problems. This is because he considers perception and attitudinal change to be the greatest challenge towards integrating young people into mainstream society.


• Blackman, Toni (artist/activist, US Hip Hop Ambassador)
3807 Landcaster, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
Email : [email protected]
Toni Blackman is perhaps one of the foremost artists and activists of her time and deeply  committed to her life's work of elevating the culture of hip hop. As a performing poet, as one of the fiercest freestyle MC's, and as an educator, Toni has raised the bar for all her peers and colleagues. A winner of numerous awards, she is involved in hip hop activism and hip hop education (she is the founder of the popular Freestyle Union). Internationally, Blackman served as a curator for the International Hip Hop Festival (at the New Jersey Performing Arts Center in 2002). Outside the US,  she  has facilitated artist exchanges with the hip hop community in South Africa. Her steadfast international work led the U.S. Department of State to bestow the title of U.S. Hip Hop Ambassador upon her. Already serving in this capacity in Senegal and Ghana, she will visit Nigeria and two additional countries in 2004.


• Cortinas Muñoz, Joan (Consultant, Section for Youth, UNESCO/Paris)
C/ Guifré 383 1r 08912 Badalona
Phone : 0034 93 388 29 53
Email: [email protected]
Mr Cortinas is currently preparing a PhD in sociology. At the same he is working as a consultant in peace issues for UNESCO’s Section for Youth. His activity consists in running trainings in conflict resolution for youth in different countries and coordinate educational contents of international youth events related to peace. His main interest is how to promote an active role of young people in the work for peace, especially in areas of armed conflict. That implies the creation of mechanisms which bring young people from violence to activism for social justice. His contribution to the Forum focused on non-violent communication methods as a mean to empower young people living in marginalized areas. Non-violent communication methods are seen as a mean through which young people can start to understand the roots of violence they follow and develop new methods (non-violent) of expression to deal with conflicts they are involved in.

• Fize, Michel
CNRS  (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France)
 4 square du Nouveau Belleville
 75020  PARIS
Phone : 06 07 06 01 65
Fax : 01 47 97 27 88
Email : [email protected]
Mr FIZE works as a researcher on questions of youth, adolescence and family. After completing his education in sociology, he decided to work in the Youth and Sport Ministry, directed by Marie-George Buffet (1997-1998). His most recent publication (‘Les interdits. Fondements de la liberté’, Presses de la Renaissance, 2004) calls for ‘useful’ and collectively agreed ‘interdictions’ as the basis of a civic society. His main interest being the defence of  the rights of young people, his contribution in the Forum will focus on an analysis of the relationship between different generations.


12 August 2004 ‘Alternative Languages to Violence’


• Barbosa, Paulo Alexandre Pereira (Deputy Secretary of Education of the State of São Paulo)
Department of Education of the State of São Paulo
Praça da República nº  53 – 2º andar – sala 204
01045-903 – Centro – São Paulo – SP - Brazil
Phone : 55 11 3218.2006
Fax : 55 11 3259.9347
Email : [email protected]
Mr Barbosa is Deputy Secretary-of Education in the State of São Paulo. His activities consist in assisting the Secretary of Education in his planning and administration activities, such as attending the demands of the public school system in the State, which comprehends some 6,000 schools and 6,000,000 students. Besides managing one of the largest public education systems in the world, the Department of Education is responsible for FEBEM (Foundation for the Welfare of Children and Teenagers), composed of 77 units.
His contribution to the  Forum will focus on his experience since his participation in the student movement, and particularly during his work in the Government of the State of São Paulo, where he worked in the Department of Youth and currently in the Department of Education, which allowed him to understand the reality faced by young people, who often face adverse circumstances, living in situations of grave social violence. With seriousness, transparency and touch, the key elements to construct the bases of education and socialize young people, he expects to contribute to the Forum, pointing out that excellence in Education transforms the school in a place of peace.


• Berardi, Christophe (DERATION NATIONALE LEO LAGRANGE)
153 AVENUE jean Lolive
93695 Pantin Cedex
Phone: +33 1 48 10 65 65
E-mail: [email protected]
Mr Berardi  has been working for the last three years for the Leo-Lagrange Federation (a youth and popular education organization with approximately 100,000 members) as a federal delegate responsible for national campaigns. He was also Vice President in charge of social questions at the student union (UNEF - ID, National Union of French Students) and has been a member of the secretariat of the European Social Forum of Paris-St. Denis. In the Forum, he will present the initiative ‘Démocratie et Courage’, a non-formal education project tackling violence and racial discrimination among young people.
 

• Coral Vilella, Laia (Coordinator ‘International Youth  Network for Peace-Building’/ Catalan Federations of UNESCO Associations and Clubs)
 Mallorca 285 pral. 1 (08037 Barcelona)
Phone :  00 34 934 589 595
Fax :  00 34 934 575 851
Email : [email protected]
Ms Laia Coral is a student and works in the Catalan Federation of UNESCO Associations and Clubs where she coordinates the ‘Youth Network for Peace-Building’. This network is the outcome of several international youth events that the Catalan Federation of UNESCO Associations and Clubs and the UNESCO Centre of Catalonia have been organising since 1993. The ‘Youth Network for Peace Building’ aims at connecting young people from all over the world and forging concrete partnerships, in order to give them opportunities to meet each other, share their own experiences and learn from each other, while putting into practice the ideals that we all share. In the Forum, Ms Laia Coral will present the network and its main objectives and projects.


• Imaz, Virginia (Artistic Director ‘Ohiluriklown’)
  Oihulari Antzerki Taldea
Caserio Aibar Barrio San Juan n71 Bergara
  20570 Gipuzkoa, Spain
Phone : +34 607 20 45 03
Email : [email protected]
Mrs Virginia Imaz works for ‘Oihulariklown’. She is the Artistic Director of the ‘Oihulariklown’ Theatre Company and is involved both as a director and performer in the company’s productions. After completing her studies in education, she decided to study theatre of the mask including clown, jesting, and the comedy of art. Her main interest is using humour as an educational and therapeutic instrument.
Her contribution to the Forum will focus on using laughter to create an open, enjoyable atmosphere in which to discuss complex issues without losing sight of the importance of the issues being discussed.


• SESI Brazil (Poeiras, Marilda and Edson Danilo Massulo Lisboa)
SESI
Sector bancario Norte, Quadra 1-Bloco C
Edificio Roberto Simonsen
70040-903-Brasilia-DF
Phone: +61 317 9000
www.sesi.org.br
SESI is the national industry’s social service in Brazil. It is a private organization established in 1946 and linked to the National Confederation of Industry. Its mission is to ‘contribute to the strengthening of industry and the  fulfilment of its social responsibility, providing integrated education, health, and leisure services, with a view to sustainable development and to improving quality of life at work.’  SESI operates throughout Brazil through its 27 regional departments. Ms Marilda Poeiras and Mr Edson Danilo Massulo Lisboa will present SESI’s approach, and more in particular, its ‘Segundo Tempo Programme’, a joint initiative with UNESCO and the Ministry of Sports to tackle youth violence.

 

 

 

 

Speech Chief BSP/YTH at the Official Opening Ceremony 3rd World Youth Festival Barcelona (Sunday, 8 August 2004)


Mr Joan Clos, President of the Forum Barcelona and mayor of Barcelona,
Mr Ernest Benach, President of the Catalan Parliament,
Ms Alicia Fernandes, President of the National Youth Council of Catalonia,
Presidents and members of youth structures who contributed to the event,
Dear participants of the 3rd World Youth Festival,

As a major partner of the Forum of Cultures, UNESCO is thankful to the organisers of the 3rd World Youth Festival for inviting us to participate in the festival and be part of its engaging motto ‘Let  us build the world’. And, it is always great to come to Barcelona.

Youth Festivals are a special multicultural occasion for young people to meet each other, exchange experiences and ideas, create networks, and most importantly, have fun. In UNESCO, we believe that we need to meet young people where they are, in their own spaces. The World Youth Festival is a youth planet. The youth structures who have conceived this planet  made sure that is has beautiful surroundings, but more important, that is has brains, hearts and souls to bring in worthy causes and ways to address them, in order that together, united, we could contribute to ‘Let us build the world’ as a convening agenda.

As much as we rejoice in the result of being able to reach the target of 10,000 participants, our real work starts now. It begins with the task of identifying the priorities of the young people who are here and who are not here.

The UNDP Human Development Report 2004 addresses the importance of culture as a facilitator of development processes. It says ‘Unless people who are poor and marginalised.. can influence political action at local and national levels, they are unlikely to get equitable access to jobs, schools, hospitals, justice, security and other basic services.’

We need to pre-empt social and political distances with the marginalised. We need to identify actions and processes that prevent young people from developing their full potential. Throughout the Festival, UNESCO will be working with artists and experiences young people on ways to get to understand better violence and the many ways in which it exists in young people’s daily lives.

As much as ‘violence’ is a powerful force in today’s world, we want to actively construct alternative practices that foster a culture of non-violence and cooperation. We invite you to contribute with all your energy and expertise to this challenging task.

Thank you.

 

 

 


Third World Youth Festival, Forum of Cultures, Barcelona

UNESCO
Section for Youth
9-12 August 2004
‘Language as Violence, Violence as Language’

Monday, 9 August 2004
  DIALOGUE ON THEMATIC ISSUES
10.00 - 13.30
Room 117
 Opening speech by Maria Helena Henriques Mueller, Head of UNESCO’s Section for Youth

First panel: ‘VIOLENCE AS A DAILY LANGUAGE IN YOUTH REALITY’

Presentations by speakers in charge of afternoon workshops

Q & A

 

15.00 - 17.00

Room 134

Room 133

Room  121

17.00 – 19. 00

Room  114 
Workshops

-Marta Avancini, UNESCO/Brazil: ‘Daily violence in youth reality’.

-Reiko Yoshida, UNESCO/Paris: ‘The language of culture in HIV/AIDS’

-Silvia Piris, Parekatzen (Equating genders)/Bilbao: ‘Youth facing gender violence’


-Jane Lowicki, International Rescue Committe/New York: ‘Adolescents affected by armed conflict’ (cancelled)

Tuesday, 10 August 2004
10.00 - 13.30

Room 111

 


 
Second panel: ‘VIOLENCE AND MEDIA’
 
Presentations by speakers in charge of afternoon workshops

Q & A

 

 

15.00 - 17.00


Room 121

Room 133

Room 131

17.30  - 19.30

Room 115 
Workshops


-Tanja Bosch, Bushradio/Southafrica: ‘Violence in radio’

-Musica Esperanza/Argentina: ‘Grassroots media’

-Capoeira Group, Making room/Brazil & Tango Bus/ Argentina: “Disarming Violence “


-Didier Roustand, Foot Citoyen/France: ‘Fighting against violence in sport’

 

Wednesday, 11 August 2004
10.00 - 13.30
Room 111 Third panel: ‘EXPRESSION OF VIOLENCE AS A SUBSTITUTE FOR COMMUNICATION’

Presentations by speakers in charge of afternoon workshops

Q & A


15.00 - 17.00

 


Room 111


Room 123


Room 116


Room 121

 
Workshops

 


-Juma Assiago, UNHABITAT/ Kenya: ’Back to the right track’

-Michael Fize, France: ’Intergenerational indifference- A form of violence’

-Toni Blackman, International Music Council/ New York: ‘The language  and the impact of Hip Hop Culture’

-Joan Cortinas, UNESCO consultant/Barcelona: ‘Non violent communication methods’

 

Thursday, 12 August 2004
10:00 - 13.30
Room 111
 Fourth panel: ‘ALTERNATIVE LANGUAGES TO VIOLENCE’

Presentations by speakers in charge of afternoon workshops

Q & A Discussion

Plenary

15.00 - 17.00

Room 121


Room 134


Room 132


Room 123 Workshops

-Paulo Barbosa, Under Secretary of Education, Sao Paulo,Brazil: “Making room Programme”

-Laia Corral, UNESCO Center of Catalunya: ‘International Youth Network for Peace-Building’

-Christophe Berardi, Democracy and courage/France: ‘Fighting racial discrimination’

Edson Danilo Massulo Lisboa  & Marilda Poeiras, SESI Brazil: ‘Second Half programme’ & Capoeira Group

 


 

PARALLEL EVENTS
  

Events 
Time 
Day  and place

Clowns performances and tales by OIHULARIKLOWN
 In every plenary session and workshops

17.00-18.00
18.00-19.30 9-12 Aug

 

 

10 Aug, speaker’s corner


11 Aug, ‘escenario sombras’

International Music Council,
Hip Hop Workshops and concerts

Graffiti: an expression of art

Hip Hop Solidarity Concert

Rap: poetry in motion

Breakdancing: Hip Hop’s dance
 

 

17.00-19.00

19.00-21.00

       17.00-17.50
17.30-18.30 

 

11 August, Graffiti walls

11 Aug, Fotovoltaica

11 Aug, speaker’s corner

11 Aug, Carpa CCIB
  
Tango and poems by TANGO BUS 20.10-21.00
The Tango ‘Hug’

17.00-18.00
‘Tango Eyes’

 

19.30-21.00
Tango Bus Cultural Programme 12 August, speaker’s corner


10 August, Fotovoltaica

 


13 August, Carpa CCIB

Capoeira exhibition and workshops
By Grupo de Capoeira de Bahia


Capoeira: a fight against repression 

20.10-21.00
19.00 –20.00
19.00
 

 


10 Aug, speaker’s corner

11 August, carpa CCIB

12 Aug, ‘Batucada’ International Youth Day Main Programme

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 


 

 

ايميلات الاتصال

 

الايميلات الشخصية

[email protected]

[email protected]

[email protected]

الساعات المكتبية

السبت  8-10ص

الأحد 12-2م

----

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

اعجاز متواصل

هناك 10 حروف من أصل 28 حرف باللغة العربية مستحيل أن تجد إسماً لإنسان عربي لايوجد به أحد هذه الحروف .
والحروف هي ( ب ، س ، م ، ا ، ل ، هـ ، ر ، ح ، ن ، ي ) .
جربوا مهما حاولتم لن تجدوا أبدا أي إسم عربي لايحوي على احد هذه الحروف، دققوا فيها قليلا تجدوها احرف جملة ( بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم ) .
فسبحان الله العظيم أعجز البشر حتى بالحروف دقق ايها الانسان فيما اختاره الله لك فلابد ان تجد الاعجاز حولك في كل مكان حتى في نفسك .
سبحان الله و بحمده..
 

ابداع الخالق المصور

ابداع الخالق المصور

صور للنهر الأجمل في العالم(نهر Cano Cristales في كولومبيا ..)

بقية الصور نهر   Cano Cristales في كولومبيا ..

على الرابط التالي:

http://forum.arabia4serv.com/t54513.html


لا تملك الا ان تقول سبحان الله

من اجمل ما تلقيت من رسائل 1

قصة مؤثرة 1

نماذج وكتب


 

نماذج البيانات والمعلومات الاحصائية المطلوب  تعبئتها من كليات التربية باأقسامها المختلفة(عربي)

نموذج استمارة البيانات (عربي)

نموذج استمارة البيانات (انجليزي)

متطلب تاهيل البرنامج للاعتماد


هل أنت متوتر ؟

هذه الصورة فى الأصل  ثابتة
ولكن كل إنسان يراها على حسب نسبة التوتر الداخلى الذى يشعر به
 فلو شاهدها الإنسان ثابتة إذاً فهو إنسان معتدل فكرياً و لا يوجد لديه أى شىء من التوتر النفسى أمّا لو الإنسان شاهدها تتحرك ببطء فهو لديه توتر نفسى خفيفأمّا لو الإنسان شاهدها تتحرك بسرعة فهو لديه توتر نفسى و غير  مستقر  فكرياً  

 هل انت متوتر؟

 

رابط مجلة بحوث ودراسات جودة التعليم

رابط بمجلة حوث ودراسات جودة التعليم

للتحميل

من هنا

http://vb.naqaae.eg/naqaae3152/

•تحفيز الطلاب على التعلم (عرض تقديمي د/ عبدالعزيز الريس

تحفيز الطلاب على التعلم (عرض تقديمي د/ عبدالعزيز الريس

قصة اعجبتني(اعمل بإخلاص مهما كان الوضع)

كان هناك رجل بناء يعمل في أحدى الشركات لسنوات طويلة ، فبلغ به العمر أن أراد ان يقدم إستقالته ليتفرغ لعائلته ، فقال له رئيسه : سوف أقبل أستقالتك بشرط أن تبني مَنْزلا أخيراً ،فقبل الرجل العرض على مضض ،وأسرع في بناء المنزل دون (( تركيز وإتقان))  ثم سلم مفاتيحه لرئيسه . فابتسم رئيسه وقال له : هذا المنزل هدية نهاية خدمتك للشركة طوال السنوات الماضية  .. فصدم الرجل وندم ندماً شديداً أنه لم يتقن بناء منزل العمر .. " هكذا  العبادة التى تكون على مضض وسرعة من غير تركيز وخشوع "
اعلم أن عبادتك في النهاية لك وليست لله ..
( فالله غني عن عبادتك ).

حكمة اليوم

حاول أن تعمل ما بوسعك للحاق بقافلة الصالحين التي ستعود إلى ”وطننا الجميل“ الواسع ولا تضيع وقتك فالوقت محدود

جل جلاله

جودة التعليم والحياة

مقالات مفيدة  في مجال جودة التعليم والحياة

راجع الرابط التالي

http://vb.naqaae.eg/naqaae3396/

 

حكمة اليوم (الخير أصيل)

لا تعاشر نفسا شبعت بعد جوع فإن الخير فيها دخيل وعاشر نفسا جاعت بعد شبع فإن الخير اصيل .. اغلق اذانك إذا كنت لا تستطيع إغلاق افواه الاخرين .. لا تقاس العقول بالاعمار فكم من صغير عقله بارع وكم من كبير عقله فارغ ألاحترام فن ليس كل من تعلمه اتقنه . المال يجلب لك اصدقاء المصلحه والجمال يجلب لك اصدقاء الشهوه اما الاخلاق فتجلب لك اصدقاء العمر .لا تتاخر بالصفح عن الاخريناجعل خطواتك في الحياة كمن يمشي على الرمل لا يسمع صوته ولكن اثره واضح .

كما تزرع تحصد

إذا زرعت الأمانة فستحصد الثقة

إذا زرعت الطيبة فستحصد الأصدقاء

إذا زرعت التواضع فستحصد الاحترام

إذا زرعت المثابرة فستحصد الرضا

إذا زرعت التقدير فستحصد الاعتبار

إذا زرعت الاجتهاد فستحصد النجاح

إذا زرعت الإيمان فستحصد الطمأنينة

لذا كن حذرا اليوم مما تزرع لتحصد غدا
وعلى قدر عطائك في الحياة تأتيك ثمارها

قصة اعجبتني الإبن الأسير


)رجل عجوز يعيش لوحده
 ... رغب أن يزرع البطاطس في حديقة منزله
 و لكنه لا يستطيع لكبر سنه
 فارسل لابنه الأسير رسالة
 هذه الرسالة تقول :
 ... —
 ابني الحبيب أحمد
 تمنيت أن تكون معي الآن
 و تساعدني في حرث الحديقة لكي أزرع البطاطس
 فليس عندي من يساعدني
 و بعد فترة استلم الأب الرسالة التالية :
 —
 أبي العزيز
 أرجوك
 إياك أن تحرث الحديقة
 لإني أخفيت فيها شيئا مهمّا
 عندما أخرج من المعتقل سأخبرك ما هو
 (ابنك أحمد)
 —
 لم تمض ساعة على الرسالة و إذ برجال الموساد و الإستخبارات
 و الجيش يحاصرون المنزل و يحفرونه شبرا شبرا
 فلما لم يجدوا شيئا غادروا المنزل
 
وصلت رسالة للأب من ابنه في اليوم التالي :
 —
 أبي العزيز
 أرجو أن تكون الأرض قد حُرثت بشكل جيد
 فهذا ما استطعت أن أساعدك به
 و إذا احتجت لشيء آخر أخبرني
 و سامحني على التقصير

 

 

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