أ. شريف نايف عوايص

محاضر في ادارة الأعمال- رئيس قسم التسجيل - عمادة القبول والتسجيل

العلاقات الانسانية

Management schools

Modern managers use many of the practices, principles, and techniques developed from earlier concepts and experiences. The Industrial Revolution brought about the emergence of large-scale business and its need for professional managers. Early military and church organizations provided the leadership models.

In 1975, Raymond E. Miles wrote Theories of Management: Implications for Organizational Behavior and Development published by McGraw Hill Text. In it, he popularized a useful model of the evolution of management theory in the United States. His model includes classical, human relations, and human resources management.

Human Relations School

Behavioral or human relations management emerged in the 1920s and dealt with the human aspects of organizations. It has been referred to as the neoclassical school because it was initially a reaction to the shortcomings of the classical approaches to management. The human relations movement began with the Hawthorne Studies which were conducted from 1924 to 1933 at the Hawthorne Plant of the Western Electric Company in Cicero, Illinois.

The Hawthorne Studies

Harvard Business School researchers, T.N. Whitehead, Elton Mayo, and George Homans, were led by Fritz Roethlisberger. Elton Mayo, known as the Father of the Hawthorne Studies, identified the Hawthorne Effect or the bias that occurs when people know that they are being studied. The Hawthorne Studies are significant because they demonstrated the important influence of human factors on worker productivity.

There were four major phases to the Hawthorne Studies: the illumination experiments, the relay assembly group experiments, the interviewing program, and the bank wiring group studies. The intent of these studies was to determine the effect of working conditions on productivity. The illumination experiments tried to determine whether better lighting would lead to increased productivity. Both the control group and the experimental group of female employees produced more whether the lights were turned up or down. It was discovered that this increased productivity was a result of the attention received by the group. In the relay assembly group experiments, six female employees worked in a special, separate area; were given breaks and had the freedom to talk; and were continuously observed by a researcher who served as the supervisor.  The supervisor consulted the employees prior to any change. The bank wiring group studies were analyzed thoroughly by Homans and were included in his now classic book, The Human Group. The bank wiring groups involved fourteen male employees and were similar to the relay assembly group experiments, except that there was no change of supervision. Again, in the relay and bank wiring phases, productivity increased and was attributed to group dynamics. The conclusion was that there was no cause-and-effect relationship between working conditions and productivity. Worker attitude was found to be important. An extensive employee interviewing program of 21,000 interviews was conducted to determine employee attitudes toward the company and their jobs. As a major outcome of these interviews, supervisors learned that an employee's complaint frequently is a symptom of some underlying problem on the job, at home, or in the person's past.

Chester Barnard (1886-1961)

When Chester Barnard retired as the CEO of New Jersey Bell Telephone, he recorded his insights about management in his book, Functions of the Executive. It outlined the legitimacy of the supervisor's directives and the extent of the subordinates' acceptance. He developed the concepts of strategic planning and the acceptance theory of authority. Strategic planning is the formulation of major plans or strategies, which guide the organization in pursuit of major objectives. Barnard taught that the three top functions of the executive were to (l) establish and maintain an effective communication system, (2) hire and retain effective personnel, and (3) motivate those personnel.  His Acceptance Theory of Authority states that managers only have as much authority as employees allow them to have. The acceptance theory of authority suggests that authority flows downward but depends on acceptance by the subordinate. The acceptance of authority depends on four conditions. (1.) Employees must understand what the manager wants them to do. (2.) Employees must be able to comply with the directive. (3.) Employees must think that the directive is in keeping with organizational objectives. (4.) Employees must think that the directive is not contrary to their personal goals. Barnard believed that each person has a zone of indifference or a range within each individual in which he or she would willingly accept orders without consciously questioning authority. It was up to the organization to provide sufficient inducements to broaden each employee's zone of indifference so that the manager's orders would be obeyed.

Human Resources School

Beginning in the early 1950s, the human resources school represented a substantial progression from human relations. The behavioral approach did not always increase productivity. Thus, motivation and leadership techniques became a topic of great interest. The human resources school understands that employees are very creative and competent, and that much of their talent is largely untapped by their employers. Employees want meaningful work; they want to contribute; they want to participate in decision making and leadership functions.

Integrating the Management Theories

Systems theory and a contingency view can help integrate the theories of management. Appropriate managerial techniques can be applied as required by environmental conditions. A broad perspective is valuable to managers when overseeing one unit or the total integration of all subunits.

Systems Theory

During the 1940s and World War II, systems analysis emerged. This viewpoint uses systems concepts and quantitative approaches from mathematics, statistics, engineering, and other related fields to solve problems. Managers find optimal solutions to management problems by using scientific analysis which is closely associated with the systems approach to management. A system is an interrelated and interdependent set of elements functioning as a whole. It is an open system that interacts with its environment. It is composed of inputs from the environment (material or human resources), transformation processes of inputs to finished goods (technological and managerial processes), outputs of those finished goods into the environment (products or services), and feedback (reactions from the environment). Subsystems are systems within a broader system. Interdependent subsystems (such as production, finance, and human resources) work toward synergy in an attempt to accomplish an organizational goal that could not otherwise be accomplished by a single subsystem. Systems develop synergy. This is a condition in which the combined and coordinated actions of the parts of a system achieve more than all the parts could have achieved acting independently. Entropy is the process that leads to decline.

Contingency View

In the mid-1960s, the contingency view of management or situational approach emerged. This view emphasizes the fit between organization processes and the characteristics of the situation. It calls for fitting the structure of the organization to various possible or chance events. It questions the use of universal management practices and advocates using traditional, behavioral, and systems viewpoints independently or in combination to deal with various circumstances. The contingency approach assumes that managerial behavior is dependent on a wide variety of elements. Thus, it provides a framework for integrating the knowledge of management thought.

Emerging Management Positions

New management viewpoints are emerging. Quality management emphasizes achieving customer satisfaction by providing high quality goods and services. Reengineering the organization redesigns the processes that are crucial to customer satisfaction.

Chaos models the corporation as a complex adaptive system that interacts and evolves with its surroundings. Many seemingly random movements in nature exhibit structured patterns. Living systems operate at their most robust and efficient level in the narrow space between stability and disorder -- poised at "the edge of chaos." It is here that the agents within a system conduct the fullest range of productive interactions and exchange the greatest amount of useful information


الملفات المرفقة

التقويم الأكاديمي

البوابة الالكترونية للنظام الأكاديمي

 

الأسئلة المتكررة

 

الأسئلة المتكررة

دليل الطالب التعريفي

خواطر

نحو مجتمع متكافل !

التعاون

هل نكره التعاون ؟

هل نحن نعيش حقا في مجتمع يساعد فيه الناس بعضهم بعضا , بدرجة تسمح لنا أن نقول أنه  قد تحققت فينا الآية الكريمة : ( وتعاونوا على البر والتقوى ولا تعاونوا على الإثم والعدوان ) , هل تحقق التعاون بمعناه القرآني في الحاجات وفعل الخيرات , أو كما في النص : ( بالبر والتقوى )

التقويم

Managemen

Motivation

Principles of Management

Time Management Skills

عمادة القبول والتسجيل

حفل تخريج الدفعة الثالثة

 

تابع أخبار الجامعة

 

Managers And Managing

Management Theories

Org.Enviorenment

Planning Function

 

Motivation

 

ERP-Process

Management Study Guide


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الخدمات الالكترونية لأعضاء هيئة التدريس والموظفين

 

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