أ. شريف نايف عوايص

محاضر في ادارة الأعمال- رئيس قسم التسجيل - عمادة القبول والتسجيل

Hygiene Model

Hygiene Model - Theories of Motivation: Herzberg’s Motivation

A significant development in motivation was distinction between motivational and maintenance factors in job situation. A research was conducted by Herzberg and his associates based on the interview of 200 engineers and accountants who worked for eleven different firms in Pittsburgh area. These men were asked to recall specific incidents in their experience, which made them, feel either particularly good or particularly bad about jobs. The findings of the research were that good feelings in the group under test were keyed to the specific tasks that the men performed rather than to background factors such as money, security or working conditions and when they felt bad, it was because of some disturbance on these background factors which had caused them to believe that they were being treated unfairly. This led to draw a distinction between what are called as ‘motivators’ and ‘hygiene factors’. To this group of engineers and accountants, the real motivators were opportunities to become more expert and to handle more demanding assignments. Hygienie factors served to prevent loss of money and efficiency. Thus, hygienie factors provide no motivation to the employees, but the absence of these factors serves as dissatisfies.

Some job conditions operate primarily to dissatisfy employees when they are absent, but their presence does not motivate employees in a strong way. Many of these factors are traditionally perceived by management as motivators, but the factors are really more potent as dissatisfiers. They are called maintenance factors in job because they are necessary to maintain a reasonable level of satisfaction among the also known as dissatisfiers or “hygienie factors” because they support primarily to build strong motivation and high job satisfaction among the employees. These conditions are ‘motivational factors’.  Hygienie factors include wages, fringe benefits, physical conditions and overall company policy and administration. The presence of these factors at a satisfactory level presents job dissatisfaction, but they do not provide motivation to the employees. So they are not considered as motivational factors, but are essential for increasing the productivity of the employees. They are also known as satisfiers and include such factors as recognition, feeling of accomplishment and achievement, opportunity of advancement and potential for personal growth, responsibility and sense of job and individual importance, new experience and challenging work etc.

Herzberg further stated that managers have hitherto been very much concerned with hygienie factors. As a result, they have not been able to obtain the desired behaviour from employees. In order to increase the motivation of employees, it is necessary to pay attention to the satisfiers or motivational factors.

Herzberg also said that to-day’s motivators are tomorrow’s hygienes because they stop influencing the behaviour of persons when they get them. When a person gets one thing, then something else will motivate him and the need, which has been fulfilled, will have only negative significance in determining his behaviour. It should also be noted that one’s hygiene may be the motivator of another. For instance, it is likely that workers in underdeveloped societies will designate some of the maintenance factors as motivators because their primary needs have not been fulfilled and they continue to be motivated by these factors.

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