أ. شريف نايف عوايص

محاضر في ادارة الأعمال- رئيس قسم التسجيل - عمادة القبول والتسجيل

Management Theorie



Management Theories

Modern managers use many of the practices, principles, and techniques developed from earlier concepts and experiences. The Industrial Revolution brought about the emergence of large-scale business and its need for professional managers. Early military and church organizations provided the leadership
models.

In 1975, Raymond E. Miles wrote Theories of
Management: Implications for Organizational Behavior and Development
published
by McGraw Hill Text. In it, he popularized a useful model of the evolution of
management theory in the United
States. His model includes classical, human
relations, and human resources management.

Classical
School

The Classical
school of thought began around 1900 and continued into the 1920s. Traditional
or classical management focuses on efficiency and includes
bureaucratic, scientific and administrative management. Bureaucratic management
relies on a rational set of structuring guidelines, such as rules and
procedures, hierarchy, and a clear division of labor. Scientific management
focuses on the "one best way" to do a job. Administrative management
emphasizes the flow of information in the operation of the organization.

Bureaucracy

Max Weber (1864-1920), known as the Father of
Modern Sociology, analyzed bureaucracy as the most logical and rational
structure for large organziations. Bureaucracies are founded on legal or rational
authority
which is based on law, procedures, rules, and so on. Positional
authority
of a superior over a subordinate stems from legal authority. Charismatic
authority
stems from the personal qualities of an individual. Efficiency in
bureaucracies comes from: (1.) clearly defined and specialized functions; (2.)
use of legal authority; (3.) hierarchical form; (4.) written rules and
procedures; (5.) technically trained bureaucrats; (6.) appointment to positions
based on technical expertise; (7.) promotions based on competence; (8.) clearly
defined career paths.

Scientific Management

Scientific
management
focuses on worker and machine relationships. Organizational productivity can be
increased by increasing the efficiency of production processes. The efficiency
perspective is concerned with creating jobs that economize on time, human
energy, and other productive resources. Jobs are designed so that each worker
has a specified, well controlled task that can be performed as instructed.
Specific procedures and methods for each job must be followed with no
exceptions.

Frederick Taylor (1856-1915)

Many of
Frederick Taylor's definitive studies were performed at Bethlehem Steel Company
inPittsburgh.
To improve productivity,Taylorexamined the time and motion details of a job, developed a better method for
performing that job, and trained the worker. Furthermore,Tayloroffered a piece rate that increased as
workers produced more.

In 1911, Frederick
Taylor
, known as the Father of Scientific Management, published Principles
of Scientific Management
in which he proposed work methods designed to
increase worker productivity. One of  his famous experiments had to do
with increasing the output of a worker loading pig iron to a rail car.Taylorbroke the job down
into its smallest constituent movements, timing each one with a stopwatch.
The job was redesigned with a reduced number of motions as well as effort
and the risk of error. Rest periods of specific interval and duration and a
differential pay scale were used to improve the output. With scientific
management,Taylorincreased the worker's output from 12 to 47 tons per day! The
Taylor
model
gave rise to dramatic productivity increases.

Frank (1868-1924) and Lillian (1878-1972) Gilbreth

Frank and
Lillian Gilbreth emphasized method by focusing on identifying the elemental
motions in work, the way these motions were combined to form methods of
operation, and the basic time each motion took. They believed it was possible
to design work methods whose times could be estimated in advance, rather than
relying upon observation-based time studies. Frank Gilbreth, known as the
Father of Time and Motion Studies, filmed individual physical labor movements.
This enabled the manager to break down a job into its component parts and
streamline the process. His wife, Lillian Gilbreth, was a psychologist and
author of The Psychology of Work. In 1911 Frank Gilbreth wrote Motion
Study
and in 1919 the couple wrote Applied Motion Study. Frank and
Lillian had 12 children. Two of their children, Frank B. Gilbreth, Jr. and
Ernestine Gilbreth Careyone, wrote their story, Cheaper by the Dozen.

One of Frank
Gilbreth's first studies concerned bricklaying. (He had worked as an apprentice
bricklayer.) He designed and patented special scaffolding to reduce the bending
and reaching which increased output over 100 per cent. However, unions resisted
his improvements, and most workers persisted in using the old, fatiguing
methods.

The Gilbreths
believed that there was one best way to perform an operation. However, this
"one best way" could be replaced when a better way was discovered.
The Gilbreths defined motion study as dividing work into the most
fundamental elements possible, studying those elements separately and in
relation to one another; and from these studied elements, when timed, building
methods of least waste. They defined time study as a searching
scientific analysis of methods and equipment used or planned in doing a piece
of work, development in practical detail of the best way of doing it, and
determination of the time required. The Gilbreths drew symbols on operator
charts to represent various elements of a task such as search, select, grasp,
transport, hold, delay, and others. They called these graphical symbols
"therbligs" (Gilbreths spelled backwards).

Henry Gantt (1861-1919)

Henry Gantt
developed the Gantt chart, which is used for scheduling multiple overlapping
tasks over a time period. He focused on motivational schemes, emphasizing the
greater effectiveness of rewards for good work (rather than penalties for poor
work). He developed a pay incentive system with a guaranteed minimum wage and
bonus systems for people on fixed wages. Also, Gantt focused on the importance
of the qualities of leadership and management skills in building effective
industrial organizations.

Administrative Management

Administrative
management
emphasizes the manager and the functions of management. Henri
Fayol
(1841--1925), known as the Father of Modern Management, was a
French industrialist who developed a framework for studying management. He
wrote General and Industrial Management. His five functions of managers
were plan, organize, command, coordinate, and control. His fourteen principles
of management included division of work, authority and responsibility,
discipline, unity of command, unity of direction, subordination of individual
interests to general interests, renumeration of personnel, centralization,
scalar chain, order, equity, stability of tenure of personnel, initiative, and
esprit de corps (union is strength).

Mary
Parker Follett'
s concepts included the universal goal, the universal
principle, and the Law of the Situation. The universal goal of
organizations is an integration of individual effort into a synergistic whole.
The universal principle is a circular or reciprocal response emphasizing
feedback to the sender (the concept of two-way communications). Law of the
Situation
emphasizes that there is no one best way to do anything, but
that it all depends on the situation.

Human RelationsSchool

Behavioral or human
relations
management emerged in the 1920s and dealt with the human aspects
of organizations. It has been referred to as the neoclassical school because it
was initially a reaction to the shortcomings of the classical approaches to
management. The human relations movement began with the Hawthorne Studies which
were conducted from 1924 to 1933 at the Hawthorne Plant of the Western Electric
Company inCicero,Illinois.

TheHawthorneStudies

Harvard BusinessSchoolresearchers, T.N. Whitehead, Elton Mayo, and George Homans, were led by Fritz
Roethlisberger.
Elton Mayo, known as the Father of the
Hawthorne Studies, identified the Hawthorne Effect or the bias that
occurs when people know that they are being studied. The Hawthorne Studies are
significant because they demonstrated the important influence of human factors
on worker productivity.

There were four
major phases to the Hawthorne Studies: the illumination experiments, the relay
assembly group experiments, the interviewing program, and the bank wiring group
studies. The intent of these studies was to determine the effect of working
conditions on productivity. The illumination experiments tried to determine
whether better lighting would lead to increased productivity. Both the control
group and the experimental group of female employees produced more whether the
lights were turned up or down. It was discovered that this increased
productivity was a result of the attention received by the group. In the relay
assembly group experiments, six female employees worked in a special, separate
area; were given breaks and had the freedom to talk; and were continuously
observed by a researcher who served as the supervisor.  The supervisor
consulted the employees prior to any change. The bank wiring group studies were
analyzed thoroughly by Homans and were included in his now classic book, The
Human Group
. The bank wiring groups involved fourteen male employees and
were similar to the relay assembly group experiments, except that there was no
change of supervision. Again, in the relay and bank wiring phases, productivity
increased and was attributed to group dynamics. The conclusion was that there
was no cause-and-effect relationship between working conditions and
productivity. Worker attitude was found to be important. An extensive employee
interviewing program of 21,000 interviews was conducted to determine employee
attitudes toward the company and their jobs. As a major outcome of these
interviews, supervisors learned that an employee's complaint frequently is a
symptom of some underlying problem on the job, at home, or in the person's
past.

Chester Barnard (1886-1961)

When Chester
Barnard
retired as the CEO of New Jersey Bell Telephone, he recorded
his insights about management in his book, Functions of the Executive.
It outlined the legitimacy of the supervisor's directives and the extent of the
subordinates' acceptance. He developed the concepts of strategic planning and
the acceptance theory of authority. Strategic planning is the formulation of
major plans or strategies, which guide the organization in pursuit of major
objectives. Barnard taught that the three top functions of the executive were
to (l) establish and maintain an effective communication system, (2) hire and
retain effective personnel, and (3) motivate those personnel.  His Acceptance
Theory of Authority
states that managers only have as much authority
as employees allow them to have. The acceptance theory of authority suggests
that authority flows downward but depends on acceptance by the subordinate. The
acceptance of authority depends on four conditions. (1.) Employees must
understand what the manager wants them to do. (2.) Employees must be able to
comply with the directive. (3.) Employees must think that the directive is in
keeping with organizational objectives. (4.) Employees must think that the
directive is not contrary to their personal goals. Barnard believed that each
person has a zone of indifference or a range within each individual
in which he or she would willingly accept orders without consciously questioning
authority. It was up to the organization to provide sufficient inducements to
broaden each employee's zone of indifference so that the manager's orders would
be obeyed.

Human ResourcesSchool

Beginning in
the early 1950s, the human resources school represented a substantial
progression from human relations. The behavioral approach did not always
increase productivity. Thus, motivation and leadership techniques became a
topic of great interest. The human resources school understands that employees
are very creative and competent, and that much of their talent is largely
untapped by their employers. Employees want meaningful work; they want to
contribute; they want to participate in decision making and leadership
functions.

Integrating
the Management Theories

Systems theory
and a contingency view can help integrate the theories of management.
Appropriate managerial techniques can be applied as required by environmental
conditions. A broad perspective is valuable to managers when overseeing one
unit or the total integration of all subunits.

Systems Theory

During the
1940s and World War II, systems analysis emerged. This viewpoint uses systems
concepts and quantitative approaches from mathematics, statistics, engineering,
and other related fields to solve problems. Managers find optimal solutions to
management problems by using scientific analysis which is closely associated
with the systems approach to management. A system is an interrelated and
interdependent set of elements functioning as a whole. It is an open system
that interacts with its environment. It is composed of inputs from the
environment (material or human resources), transformation processes of inputs
to finished goods (technological and managerial processes), outputs of those
finished goods into the environment (products or services), and feedback
(reactions from the environment). Subsystems are systems within a broader
system. Interdependent subsystems (such as production, finance, and human
resources) work toward synergy in an attempt to accomplish an organizational
goal that could not otherwise be accomplished by a single subsystem. Systems
develop synergy. This is a condition in which the combined and coordinated
actions of the parts of a system achieve more than all the parts could have achieved
acting independently. Entropy is the process that leads to decline.

Contingency View

In the
mid-1960s, the contingency view of management or situational approach emerged.
This view emphasizes the fit between organization processes and the characteristics
of the situation. It calls for fitting the structure of the organization to
various possible or chance events. It questions the use of universal management
practices and advocates using traditional, behavioral, and systems viewpoints
independently or in combination to deal with various circumstances. The
contingency approach assumes that managerial behavior is dependent on a wide
variety of elements. Thus, it provides a framework for integrating the
knowledge of management thought.

Emerging
Management Positions

New management viewpoints are emerging. Quality management emphasizes achieving customer satisfaction by providing high quality
goods and services.
Reengineering the organization redesigns the processes that are crucial to customer
satisfaction.

Chaos models the corporation as a complex adaptive system that
interacts and evolves with its surroundings. Many seemingly random movements in
nature exhibit structured patterns. Living systems operate at their most robust
and efficient level in the narrow space between stability and disorder --
poised at "the edge of chaos." It is here that the agents within a
system conduct the fullest range of productive interactions and exchange the
greatest amount of useful information.

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خواطر

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التعاون

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هل نحن نعيش حقا في مجتمع يساعد فيه الناس بعضهم بعضا , بدرجة تسمح لنا أن نقول أنه  قد تحققت فينا الآية الكريمة : ( وتعاونوا على البر والتقوى ولا تعاونوا على الإثم والعدوان ) , هل تحقق التعاون بمعناه القرآني في الحاجات وفعل الخيرات , أو كما في النص : ( بالبر والتقوى )

التقويم

Managemen

Motivation

Principles of Management

Time Management Skills

عمادة القبول والتسجيل

حفل تخريج الدفعة الثالثة

 

تابع أخبار الجامعة

 

Managers And Managing

Management Theories

Org.Enviorenment

Planning Function

 

Motivation

 

ERP-Process

Management Study Guide


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