أ. شريف نايف عوايص

محاضر في ادارة الأعمال- رئيس قسم التسجيل - عمادة القبول والتسجيل

Org-Enviorenment


A goal is an end that the organization strives to attain.
However, the supervisor cannot "do" a goal. Supervisors break down
processes, analyze them, set objectives and then drive hard to achieve them.
Doing the same thing and expecting different results doesn't work. The
supervisor must
write an objective for what he or she is
trying to accomplish. Thus, an objective is the object or aim
of an action. It implies an explicit direction for the action to take and a
specific quality of work to be accomplished within a given period of time.
Objectives reflect the desired outcomes for individuals, groups and
organizations. They provide direction for decision-making and a criterion
against which outcomes are measured. Thus, objectives are the foundation of
planning.

MBO

An effective planning tool to help the supervisor set objectives is
Management by Objectives (MBO). MBO gained recognition in 1954
with the publication of Peter Drucker's book The Practice of Management.
MBO is a collaborative process whereby the manager and each subordinate jointly
determine objectives for that subordinate. To be successful MBO programs should
include commitment and participation in the MBO process at all levels, from top
management to the lowest position in the organization.

MBO begins when the supervisor explains the goals for the department in a
meeting. The subordinate takes the goals and proposes objectives for his or her
particular job. The supervisor meets with the subordinate to approve and, if
necessary, modify the individual objectives. Modification of the individual's
objectives is accomplished through negotiation since the supervisor has
resources to help the subordinate commit to the achievement of the objective.
Thus, a set of verifiable objectives for each individual are jointly
determined, prioritized, and formalized.

The supervisor and the subordinate meet periodically to review the latter's
progress. Communication is the key factor in determining MBO's success or
failure. The supervisor gives feedback and may authorize modifications to the
objectives or their timetables as circumstances dictate. Finally, the
employee's performance is measured against his or her objectives, and he or she
is rewarded accordingly.

Steps in MBO Process

Research has demonstrated that when top management is committed and
personally involved in implementing MBO programs, they significantly improve
performance. This finding is not surprising when one considers that during the
MBO process employees determine what they will accomplish. After all, who knows
what a person is capable of doing better than the person does him or herself?

Objectives are the driver of planning processes. It is imperative that top
managers safeguard the intention of their goals to facilitate middle and lower
management's effective translation and implementation of them. Objectives guide
managerial activities such as budgeting, the development of action plans,
staffing, and the purchasing of equipment. The organization's success
ultimately depends on the combined outcomes of its objectives.

Objectives

Most supervisors set objectives, but not with equal skill. Few, who do not
correctly write objectives, will reap MBO's full benefits. An objective is
simply a statement of what is to done and should be stated in terms of results.
A mnemonic aid to write objectives is SMART (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Result-oriented, Time-limited).

Specific

An objective must be specific with a single key result. If more than one
result is to be accomplished, more than one objective should be written. Just
knowing what is to be accomplished is a big step toward achieving it.

What is important to you? Once you clarify what you want to achieve, your
attention will be focused on the objective that you deliberately set. You will
be doing something important to you.

Measurable

An objective must be measurable. Only an objective that affects behavior in
a measurable way can be optimally effective. If possible, state the objective
as a quantity. Some objectives are more difficult to measure than others are.
However, difficulty does not mean that they cannot be measured. Treatment of
salespeople might be measured by looking at the absenteeism and turnover rates
among the sales force. Also, salespeople could be asked to fill out a behavioral
questionnaire anonymously giving their observations of the supervision they
receive. Customer service could be measured by such indices as the number of
complaints received, by the number of customers lost, and by customer
interviews or responses to questionnaires. Development of subordinates could be
measured by determining the number of tasks the subordinate has mastered.
Cooperation with other functions could be measured by length of delay in
providing requested information, or by peer ratings of degree of cooperation.

Avoid statements of objectives in generalities. Infinitives to avoid include
to know, to understand, to enjoy, and to believe. Action verbs are observable
and better communicate the intent of what is to be attempted. They include to
write, to apply, to recite, to revise, to contrast, to install, to select, to
assemble, to compare, to investigate, and to develop.

How will you know you've progressed?

Attainable

An objective must be attainable with the resources that are available. It
must be realistic. Many objectives are realistic. Yet, the time it takes to
achieve them may be unrealistic. For example, it is realistic to want to lose
ten pounds. However, it is unrealistic to want to lose ten pounds in one week.

What barriers stand between you and your objective? How will each barrier be
overcome and within what time frame?

Result-oriented

The objective should be central to the goals of the organization. The
successful completion of the objective should make a difference.

How will this objective help the organization move ahead? Is the objective
aligned with the mission of the organization?

Time-limited

The objective should be traceable. Specific objectives enable time
priorities to be set and time to be used on objectives that really matter.

Are the time lines you have established realistic? Will other competing
demands cause delay? Will you be able to overcome those demands to accomplish
the objective you've set in the time frame you've established?

Write Meaningful Objectives

Although the rules are difficult to establish, the following may be useful
when writing an objective.

1. Start with an action or accomplishment verb. (Use the
infinitive form of the verb. This means to start the with "to.")

2. Identify a single key result for each objective.

3. Give the date of the estimated completion.

4. Be sure the objective is one you can control.


الملفات المرفقة

التقويم الأكاديمي

البوابة الالكترونية للنظام الأكاديمي

 

الأسئلة المتكررة

 

الأسئلة المتكررة

دليل الطالب التعريفي

خواطر

نحو مجتمع متكافل !

التعاون

هل نكره التعاون ؟

هل نحن نعيش حقا في مجتمع يساعد فيه الناس بعضهم بعضا , بدرجة تسمح لنا أن نقول أنه  قد تحققت فينا الآية الكريمة : ( وتعاونوا على البر والتقوى ولا تعاونوا على الإثم والعدوان ) , هل تحقق التعاون بمعناه القرآني في الحاجات وفعل الخيرات , أو كما في النص : ( بالبر والتقوى )

التقويم

Managemen

Motivation

Principles of Management

Time Management Skills

عمادة القبول والتسجيل

حفل تخريج الدفعة الثالثة

 

تابع أخبار الجامعة

 

Managers And Managing

Management Theories

Org.Enviorenment

Planning Function

 

Motivation

 

ERP-Process

Management Study Guide


بوابة مواقع أعضاء هيئة التدريس

الخدمات الالكترونية لأعضاء هيئة التدريس والموظفين

 

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sh.away[email protected]

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