أ. شريف نايف عوايص

محاضر في ادارة الأعمال- رئيس قسم التسجيل - عمادة القبول والتسجيل

المدرسة التقليدية

Management schools

 

Modern managers use many of the practices, principles, and techniques developed from earlier concepts and experiences. The Industrial Revolution brought about the emergence of large-scale business and its need for professional managers. Early military and church organizations provided the leadership models.

In 1975, Raymond E. Miles wrote Theories of Management: Implications for Organizational Behavior and Development published by McGraw Hill Text. In it, he popularized a useful model of the evolution of management theory in the United States. His model includes classical, human relations, and human resources management

 

Human Relations School

Behavioral or human relations management emerged in the 1920s and dealt with the human aspects of organizations. It has been referred to as the neoclassical school because it was initially a reaction to the shortcomings of the classical approaches to management. The human relations movement began with the Hawthorne Studies which were conducted from 1924 to 1933 at the Hawthorne Plant of the Western Electric Company in Cicero, Illinois.

The Hawthorne Studies

Harvard Business School researchers, T.N. Whitehead, Elton Mayo, and George Homans, were led by Fritz Roethlisberger. Elton Mayo, known as the Father of the Hawthorne Studies, identified the Hawthorne Effect or the bias that occurs when people know that they are being studied. The Hawthorne Studies are significant because they demonstrated the important influence of human factors on worker productivity.

There were four major phases to the Hawthorne Studies: the illumination experiments, the relay assembly group experiments, the interviewing program, and the bank wiring group studies. The intent of these studies was to determine the effect of working conditions on productivity. The illumination experiments tried to determine whether better lighting would lead to increased productivity. Both the control group and the experimental group of female employees produced more whether the lights were turned up or down. It was discovered that this increased productivity was a result of the attention received by the group. In the relay assembly group experiments, six female employees worked in a special, separate area; were given breaks and had the freedom to talk; and were continuously observed by a researcher who served as the supervisor.  The supervisor consulted the employees prior to any change. The bank wiring group studies were analyzed thoroughly by Homans and were included in his now classic book, The Human Group. The bank wiring groups involved fourteen male employees and were similar to the relay assembly group experiments, except that there was no change of supervision. Again, in the relay and bank wiring phases, productivity increased and was attributed to group dynamics. The conclusion was that there was no cause-and-effect relationship between working conditions and productivity. Worker attitude was found to be important. An extensive employee interviewing program of 21,000 interviews was conducted to determine employee attitudes toward the company and their jobs. As a major outcome of these interviews, supervisors learned that an employee's complaint frequently is a symptom of some underlying problem on the job, at home, or in the person's past.

Chester Barnard (1886-1961)

When Chester Barnard retired as the CEO of New Jersey Bell Telephone, he recorded his insights about management in his book, Functions of the Executive. It outlined the legitimacy of the supervisor's directives and the extent of the subordinates' acceptance. He developed the concepts of strategic planning and the acceptance theory of authority. Strategic planning is the formulation of major plans or strategies, which guide the organization in pursuit of major objectives. Barnard taught that the three top functions of the executive were to (l) establish and maintain an effective communication system, (2) hire and retain effective personnel, and (3) motivate those personnel.  His Acceptance Theory of Authority states that managers only have as much authority as employees allow them to have. The acceptance theory of authority suggests that authority flows downward but depends on acceptance by the subordinate. The acceptance of authority depends on four conditions. (1.) Employees must understand what the manager wants them to do. (2.) Employees must be able to comply with the directive. (3.) Employees must think that the directive is in keeping with organizational objectives. (4.) Employees must think that the directive is not contrary to their personal goals. Barnard believed that each person has a zone of indifference or a range within each individual in which he or she would willingly accept orders without consciously questioning authority. It was up to the organization to provide sufficient inducements to broaden each employee's zone of indifference so that the manager's orders would be obeyed.

 


الملفات المرفقة

التقويم الأكاديمي

البوابة الالكترونية للنظام الأكاديمي

 

الأسئلة المتكررة

 

الأسئلة المتكررة

دليل الطالب التعريفي

خواطر

نحو مجتمع متكافل !

التعاون

هل نكره التعاون ؟

هل نحن نعيش حقا في مجتمع يساعد فيه الناس بعضهم بعضا , بدرجة تسمح لنا أن نقول أنه  قد تحققت فينا الآية الكريمة : ( وتعاونوا على البر والتقوى ولا تعاونوا على الإثم والعدوان ) , هل تحقق التعاون بمعناه القرآني في الحاجات وفعل الخيرات , أو كما في النص : ( بالبر والتقوى )

التقويم

Managemen

Motivation

Principles of Management

Time Management Skills

عمادة القبول والتسجيل

حفل تخريج الدفعة الثالثة

 

تابع أخبار الجامعة

 

Managers And Managing

Management Theories

Org.Enviorenment

Planning Function

 

Motivation

 

ERP-Process

Management Study Guide


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الخدمات الالكترونية لأعضاء هيئة التدريس والموظفين

 

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