أ. شريف نايف عوايص

محاضر في ادارة الأعمال- رئيس قسم التسجيل - عمادة القبول والتسجيل

Strategic Manag4

The psychology of strategic management

Several psychologists have conducted studies to determine
the psychological patterns involved in strategic management. Typically senior
managers have been asked how they go about making strategic decisions. A 1938
treatise by Chester Barnard, that was based on his own experience as a business
executive, sees the process as informal, intuitive, non-routinized, and
involving primarily oral, 2-way communications. Bernard says “The process is
the sensing of the organization as a whole and the total situation relevant to
it. It transcends the capacity of merely intellectual methods, and the
techniques of discriminating the factors of the situation. The terms pertinent
to it are “feeling”, “judgement”, “sense”, “proportion”, “balance”,
“appropriateness”. It is a matter of art rather than science.”[86]

In 1973, Henry Mintzberg found that senior managers
typically deal with unpredictable situations so they strategize in ad hoc,
flexible, dynamic, and implicit ways. He says, “The job breeds adaptive
information-manipulators who prefer the live concrete situation. The manager
works in an environment of stimulous-response, and he develops in his work a
clear preference for live action.”[87]

In 1982, John Kotter studied the daily activities of 15
executives and concluded that they spent most of their time developing and
working a network of relationships from which they gained general insights and
specific details to be used in making strategic decisions. They tended to use
“mental road maps” rather than systematic planning techniques.[88]

Daniel Isenberg's 1984 study of senior managers found that
their decisions were highly intuitive. Executives often sensed what they were
going to do before they could explain why.[89] He claimed in 1986 that one of
the reasons for this is the complexity of strategic decisions and the resultant
information uncertainty.[90]

Shoshana Zuboff (1988) claims that information technology is
widening the divide between senior managers (who typically make strategic
decisions) and operational level managers (who typically make routine
decisions). She claims that prior to the widespread use of computer systems,
managers, even at the most senior level, engaged in both strategic decisions
and routine administration, but as computers facilitated (She called it
“deskilled”) routine processes, these activities were moved further down the
hierarchy, leaving senior management free for strategic decions making.

In 1977, Abraham Zaleznik identified a difference between
leaders and managers. He describes leadershipleaders as visionaries who
inspire. They care about substance. Whereas managers are claimed to care about
process, plans, and form.[91] He also claimed in 1989 that the rise of the
manager was the main factor that caused the decline of American business in the
1970s and 80s. Lack of leadership is most damaging at the level of strategic
management where it can paralyze an entire organization.[92]

According to Corner, Kinichi, and Keats,[93] strategic
decision making in organizations occurs at two levels: individual and
aggregate. They have developed a model of parallel strategic decision making.
The model identifies two parallel processes both of which involve getting
attention, encoding information, storage and retrieval of information,
strategic choice, strategic outcome, and feedback. The individual and
organizational processes are not independent however. They interact at each
stage of the process

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خواطر

نحو مجتمع متكافل !

التعاون

هل نكره التعاون ؟

هل نحن نعيش حقا في مجتمع يساعد فيه الناس بعضهم بعضا , بدرجة تسمح لنا أن نقول أنه  قد تحققت فينا الآية الكريمة : ( وتعاونوا على البر والتقوى ولا تعاونوا على الإثم والعدوان ) , هل تحقق التعاون بمعناه القرآني في الحاجات وفعل الخيرات , أو كما في النص : ( بالبر والتقوى )

التقويم

Managemen

Motivation

Principles of Management

Time Management Skills

عمادة القبول والتسجيل

حفل تخريج الدفعة الثالثة

 

تابع أخبار الجامعة

 

Managers And Managing

Management Theories

Org.Enviorenment

Planning Function

 

Motivation

 

ERP-Process

Management Study Guide


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