أ. شريف نايف عوايص

محاضر في ادارة الأعمال- رئيس قسم التسجيل - عمادة القبول والتسجيل

TheoryX,TheoryY

Theory X and Theory Y

 Understanding team member motivation

What motivates employees to go to work each morning? Many people get great
satisfaction from their work and take great pride in it; Others may view it as
a burden, and simply work to survive.

This question of motivation has been studied by management theorists and social
psychologists for decades, in attempts to identify successful approaches to
management.

Social
psychologist Douglas McGregor of MIT expounded two contrasting theories on
human motivation and management in the 1960s: The X Theory and the Y Theory.
McGregor promoted Theory Y as the basis of good management practice, pioneering
the argument that workers are not merely cogs in the company machinery, as
Theory X-Type organizations seemed to believe.

The theories
look at how a manager's perceptions of what motivates his or her team members
affects the way he or she behaves. By understanding how your assumptions about
employees’ motivation can influence your management style, you can adapt your
approach appropriately, and so manage people more effectively.

 Understanding the Theories

Your
management style is strongly influenced by your beliefs and assumptions about
what motivates members of your team: If you believe that team members dislike
work, you will tend towards an authoritarian style of management; On the other
hand, if you assume that employees take pride in doing a good job, you will
tend to adopt a more participative style.

 Theory X

Theory X
assumes that employees are naturally unmotivated and dislike working, and this
encourages an authoritarian style of management. According to this view,
management must actively intervene to get things done. This style of management
assumes that workers:

•Dislike
working.

 •Avoid responsibility and need to be directed.

•Have to be
controlled, forced, and threatened to deliver what's needed.

•Need to be
supervised at every step, with controls put in place.

•Need to be
enticed to produce results; otherwise they have no ambition or incentive to
work.

X-Type
organizations tend to be top heavy, with managers and supervisors required at
every step to control workers. There is little delegation of authority and
control remains firmly centralized.

 McGregor recognized that X-Type workers are in
fact usually the minority, and yet in mass organizations, such as large scale
production environment, X Theory management may be required and can be
unavoidable.

 Theory Y

Theory Y
expounds a participative style of management that is de-centralized. It assumes
that employees are happy to work, are self-motivated and creative, and enjoy
working with greater responsibility. It assumes that workers:

•Take
responsibility and are motivated to fulfill the goals they are given.

 •Seek and accept responsibility and do not
need much direction.

•Consider
work as a natural part of life and solve work problems imaginatively.

This more
participative management style tends to be more widely applicable. In Y-Type
organizations, people at lower levels of the organization are involved in
decision making and have more responsibility.

 Comparing Theory X and Theory Y

•Motivation

 Theory X assumes that people dislike work;
they want to avoid it and do not want to take responsibility. Theory Y assumes
that people are self-motivated, and thrive on responsibility.

 •Management Style and Control

 In a Theory X organization, management is
authoritarian, and centralized control is retained, whilst in Theory Y, the
management style is participative: Management involves employees in decision
making, but retains power to implement decisions.

•Work
Organization

 Theory X employees tend to have specialized
and often repetitive work. In Theory Y, the work tends to be organized around
wider areas of skill or knowledge; Employees are also encouraged to develop
expertise and make suggestions and improvements.

•Rewards and
Appraisals

 Theory X organizations work on a ‘carrot and
stick’ basis, and performance appraisal is part of the overall mechanisms of
control and remuneration. In Theory Y organizations, appraisal is also regular
and important, but is usually a separate mechanism from organizational
controls. Theory Y organizations also give employees frequent opportunities for
promotion.

•Application

Although
Theory X management style is widely accepted as inferior to others, it has its
place in large scale production operation and unskilled production-line work.
Many of the principles of Theory Y are widely adopted by types of organization
that value and encourage participation. Theory Y-style management is suited to
knowledge work and professional services. Professional service organizations
naturally evolve Theory Y-type practices by the nature of their work; Even
highly structure knowledge work, such as call center operations, can benefits from
Theory Y principles to encourage knowledge sharing and continuous improvement.

الملفات المرفقة

التقويم الأكاديمي

البوابة الالكترونية للنظام الأكاديمي

 

الأسئلة المتكررة

 

الأسئلة المتكررة

دليل الطالب التعريفي

خواطر

نحو مجتمع متكافل !

التعاون

هل نكره التعاون ؟

هل نحن نعيش حقا في مجتمع يساعد فيه الناس بعضهم بعضا , بدرجة تسمح لنا أن نقول أنه  قد تحققت فينا الآية الكريمة : ( وتعاونوا على البر والتقوى ولا تعاونوا على الإثم والعدوان ) , هل تحقق التعاون بمعناه القرآني في الحاجات وفعل الخيرات , أو كما في النص : ( بالبر والتقوى )

التقويم

Managemen

Motivation

Principles of Management

Time Management Skills

عمادة القبول والتسجيل

حفل تخريج الدفعة الثالثة

 

تابع أخبار الجامعة

 

Managers And Managing

Management Theories

Org.Enviorenment

Planning Function

 

Motivation

 

ERP-Process

Management Study Guide


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الخدمات الالكترونية لأعضاء هيئة التدريس والموظفين

 

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