Dr. SaMeH S. Ahmed

Associate Prof. of Environmental Engineering

Caldera formation

Caldera formation

A collapse is triggered by the emptying of the magma chamber beneath the volcano, usually as the result of a large volcanic eruption. If enough magma is ejected, the emptied chamber is unable to support the weight of the volcanic edifice above it. A roughly circular fracture, the ring fault, develops around the edge of the chamber. Ring fractures serve as feeders for fault intrusions which are also known as ring dykes. Secondary volcanic vents may form above the ring fracture. As the magma chamber empties, the center of the volcano within the ring fracture begins to collapse. The collapse may occur as the result of a single cataclysmic eruption, or it may occur in stages as the result of a series of eruptions. The total area that collapses may be hundreds or thousands of square kilometers.

Explosive calderas

If the magma is rich in silica, the caldera is often filled in with ignimbritetuffrhyolite, and other igneous rocks. Silica-rich magma has a high viscosity, and therefore does not flow easily like basalt. As a result, gases tend to become trapped at high pressure within the magma. When the magma approaches the surface of the Earth, the rapid off-loading of overlying material causes the trapped gases to decompress rapidly, thus triggering explosive destruction of the magma and spreading volcanic ash over wide areas. The lava of explosive calderas is called A'a. Further lava flows may be erupted.

If volcanic activity continues, the centre of the caldera may be uplifted in the form of a resurgent dome such as is seen at Cerro GalánLake TobaYellowstone, and so on, by subsequent intrusion of magma. A silicicor rhyolitic caldera may erupt hundreds or even thousands of cubic kilometers of material in a single event. Even small caldera-forming eruptions, such as Krakatoa in 1883 or Mount Pinatubo in 1991, may result in significant local destruction and a noticeable drop in temperature around the world. Large calderas may have even greater effects.

When Yellowstone Caldera last erupted some 650,000 years ago, it released about 1,000 km3 of material (as measured in dense rock equivalent (DRE)), covering a substantial part of North America in up to two metres of debris. By comparison, when Mount St. Helens erupted in 1980, it released ~1.2 km3 (DRE) of ejecta. The ecological effects of the eruption of a large caldera can be seen in the record of the Lake Toba eruption in Indonesia.


About 75,000 years ago, this Indonesian volcano released about 2,800 km3 DRE of ejecta, the largest known eruption within the Quaternary Period (last 1.8 million years) and the largest known explosive eruption within the last 25 million years. In the late 1990s, anthropologist Stanley Ambrose[1] proposed that a volcanic winter induced by this eruption reduced the human population to about 2,000 - 20,000 individuals, resulting in a population bottleneck (see Toba catastrophe theory). More recently several geneticists, including Lynn Jorde and Henry Harpending have proposed that the human race was reduced to approximately five to ten thousand people.[2] Whichever figure is right, the fact remains that the human race seemingly came close to extinction about 75,000 years ago.

Eruptions forming even larger calderas are known, especially La Garita Caldera in the San Juan Mountains of Colorado, where the 5,000 km3 Fish Canyon Tuff was blasted out in a single major eruption about 27.8 million years ago.

At some points in geological time, rhyolitic calderas have appeared in distinct clusters. The remnants of such clusters may be found in places such as the San Juan Mountains of Colorado (formed during the OligoceneMiocene, and Pliocene periods) or the Saint Francois Mountain Range of Missouri (erupted during the Proterozoic).

The best book

Prayer Times

Click here

Office hours

Sunday:     12-1

Monday:     12-1

Tuesday:     10-12

Wednesday: 10-11

You are welcome to contact me by at any time

You  may also contact me via WhatsApp group, ..

Ext. 2524

Civil Eng. Students

DON'T miss!

Love your department and be proud of your field of study

As we approaching the second midterm exams..  Get ready and remember our offices are open to answer you . do not hesitate to .contact me if you have difficulties

For CE 370 students : I do apologize for did not attend the extra lab session that proposed to be on Wednesday at 6 am.  Sorry

Good Luck


My Dear Students

Please visit the  announcement box for the relevant course and make sure that you can download and upload easily, otherwise

.contact me  to sort it out

There will be an orientation session in the midell of this term to help you select your track in Civil and Environmental Engineering


Special Issue

Electrical Power Resources: Coal versus Renewable Energy

  Published Online on January 2016

Mining Engineering

Mining engineering is an engineering discipline that involves practice, theory, science, technology, and the application of extracting and processing minerals from a naturally occurring environment. Mining engineering also includes processing minerals for additional value.

Environmental Engineering

Environmental engineers are the technical professionals who identify and design solutions for    environmental problems. Environmental engineers provide safe drinking water, treat and properly dispose of wastes, maintain air quality, control water pollution, and remediate sites contaminated due to spills or improper disposal of hazardous substances. They monitor the quality of the air, water, and land. And, they develop new and improved means to protect the environment.


Actions speak louder than words



College of Eng. MU



Universities I've worked in

Assuit University (Home University), Egypt

Imperial College, London, UK

Faculty of Engineering, Al-Mergeb University, Libya

King Saud University, KSA

,Majmaah University

Majmaah University has a very nice web page that provide  all information regarding deanships, colleges, activities,  campuses and many others. Search your request in

Also visit

My Academic Pages


and give me


How many red balls we need to make balance 


Egypt vs Tunisia (Handball final)  30/1/2016

Currency Converter

Click here


Click here

Course 2016/17-1

  1. Computer Applications in Surveying  CE 473
  2. Surveying 1 CE 370
  3. Photogrammetry CE 474
  4. Surveying II  CE 371
  5. Design I  (round 4) CE 498

The Rules of Life

Rule #7


Member of the Editorial Board: " Journal of Water Resources and Ocean Sciences"  2013


Participating in The Third International Conference on Water, Energy and Environment,(ICWEE) 2015 - American University of Sharjah, UAE 24-26 March 2015 with a Paper and Poster

New article

Recovery of Titania from Waste-Sludge of Majmaah Water Treatment Plant

"Production of Titania Nano-particles from Wast-


Coming soon

Results of M2 CE311

Student Conference

Participation  in the 6Th Student Conference

With a paper and oral presentation

From the Senior Design Project CE499 -35

See inside, the paper, and presentation

CE 370 Course

Surveying  I -  CE 370 - 2016-2017-1

Power point


Lecture notes

Second Midterm Exam


Model Answer
Inside, please follow:

Student Performance Records

CE 371 Course

Surveying II - CE 371 - 2016-2017-1


First midterm exam



See Inside

Student Performance Records

CE473 Course

Computer Applications in Surveying

CE 473


Power point


Exams + Quizzes


CE 474 Course

2015-2016-2 - Photogrammetry  CE474

Available 0-1-2-3-4 Power point


Quizzes 2 and 3 with model Answer

Available Chapter 1,2,3,4,5 Lecture notes

Report 1  Cameras Report


60 marks Exams

See Inside

Student Performance Records

CE 360 Course

Environmental Engineering 1

CE 360: Environmental Engineering 1


Y PP0-1-2-3,4 Power point
Y 1,2,3,4,5 Chapters

Water quality Poster + Climate Change Reports
will be announced (Quiz #2 will be using D2L- Online Quizzes


Quizzez 2,3 and 4 with model answer and results Exams and results

GE 306 Course

Engineering Report Writing

GE 306: Engineering Report Writing

CE 499 Course

Senior Design 2 - CE 499

Meeting on 14-4-2015

Second Best paper from Senior Design Projects in 2015

Paper title:

Evaluation of Groundwater Quality Parameters using Multivariate Statistics- a case Study of Majmaah, KSA


Abdullah A. Alzeer

Husam K. Almubark

Maijd M. Almotairi

CE 360-Summer Course

Environmental Engineering I

Welcome to CE360 second Term 2015-2016 

Engineering Practice

 Engineering Practice GE 307

What is your opinion

Contact me

Mobile: 00966598311652

[email protected]

Civil and Environmental Engineering Department
College of Engineering, Majmaah University
Majmaah, P.O. 66, 11952, KSA

Thank you

Your frequent visit to my website has helped  a lot to get the 2nd place in the university competition in the  year 1434-2013... Thanks very mush and please keep following my work

زيارتكم المتكررة لموقعي ساهمت في حصولي على المركز الثاني لاحسن المواقع الشخصية بجامعة المجمعة ...لكم جميعا خالص شكري وتقديري

CE 212 - Summer Course

Properties and Strength of Materials 1

CE 212

Y from PP0 to PP 6 + PDF Power points
Y Midterm #2 + Model Answer + results Exams
Y lab 3 Labs

Solution of Quiz 4 + Results HW

CE 311- Summer Course

Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering

CE 311

M2+ model Answer + PP 1-9 = PDF 1-9 all are available

Sheets 2 + 4 with model Answers

Results of M2

إحصائية الموقع

عدد الصفحات: 1412

البحوث والمحاضرات: 1541

الزيارات: 58750