Dr. SaMeH S. Ahmed

Civil and Environmental Engineering Department

Effective porosity

Effective porosity

The term effective porosity lacks a single or straightforward definition. Even some of the terms used in its mathematical description ("V_{cl}” and “V_{sh}”) have multiple definitions. However, it is most commonly considered to represent the porosity of a rock or sediment available to contribute to fluid flow through the rock or sediment, or often in terms of "flow to a borehole". Porosity that is not considered "effective porosity" includes water bound to clay particles (known as bound water) and isolated "vuggy" porosity (vugs not connected to other pores). The effective porosity is of great importance in considering the suitability of rocks or sediments as oil or gas reservoirs, or as aquifers.

Summary of terms

Fig. 2

Utilising the Eslinger & Pevear concept, the following terms are illustrated in Figure 2.

[edit]Total porosity

The volume of the reservoir rock which is fluid (oil, water, gas) filled, expressed as a percentage or a fraction of the gross (bulk) rock volume.

[edit]Effective porosity phi_{e1}

The sum of all the interconnected pore space. In the vast majority of cases, this core analysis and Petroleum Engineering definition of effective porosity equates to total porosity.

[edit]Effective porosity phi_{e2}

Effective porosity measured on core samples which are dried in a humidity oven so that clays retain one or two molecular layers of bound water—however, this CBW tends to a minimum and is likely not reservoir representative.

[edit]Effective porosity phi_{e3}

Total porosity minus clay-bound water (CBW).

[edit]Effective porosity phi_{e4}

Log effective porosity. In essence, total porosity minus shale water, where solid minerals and the volume of shale (Vsh) constitute the matrix (non-effective porosity) and the remaining volume constitutes the effective porosity. For practical purposes, Vsh includes solid clays and the clay-sized and silt-sized fraction of non-clay minerals plus CBW and capillary bound water associated with shale micropores.

[edit]Effective porosity phi_{e5}

In a hydrocarbon-bearing reservoir above the transition zone, only that pore space which is filled with hydrocarbons. From the NMR log, this equates to the Free Fluid Index (FFI), in other words, all pore space above the T2 cut-off.

[edit]Effective porosity phi_{e6}

The volume of pore space which contains only producible hydrocarbons.

[edit]Clay-bound water (CBW)

The amount of Clay-bound water is determined by the following equation

	ext{CBW} = phi_t cdot 	ext{SF} cdot 	ext{Qv}[5][6]

where phi_t is total porosity, 	ext{SF} is salinity factor and 	ext{Qv} is the Cation Exchange Capacity, meq/ml pore space

The salinity factor 	ext{SF} is calculated as 0.6425 cdot S^{-0.5} + 0.22 where S the salinity in g/l,


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