Dr. SaMeH S. Ahmed

Civil and Environmental Engineering Department

Fluid inclusions


Fluid inclusions


Fluid inclusions are microscopic bubbles of liquid and gas that are trapped within crystals. As minerals often form from a liquid or aqueous medium, tiny blebs of that liquid can become trapped within the crystal structure or in healed fractures within a crystal. These small inclusions range in size from 0.1 to 1 mm and are usually only visible in detail by microscopic study.

These inclusions occur in a wide variety of environments. For example they are found within cementing minerals of sedimentary rocks, in gangue minerals such as quartz or calcite in hydrothermal vein deposits, in fossil amber, and in deep ice cores from theGreenland and Antarctic ice caps. The inclusions can provide information about the conditions existing during the formation of the enclosing mineral.

Hydrothermal ore minerals typically form from high temperature aqueous solutions. The trapped fluid in an inclusion preserves a record of the composition, temperature and pressure of the mineralizing environment. An inclusion often contains two or more phases. If a vapor bubble is present in the inclusion along with a liquid phase, simple heating of the inclusion to the point of resorption of the vapor bubble gives a likely temperature of the original fluid. If minute crystals are present in the inclusion, such ashalitesylvitehematite, or sulfides are present, they provide direct clues as to the composition of the original fluid.

In the recent years, fluid inclusion research has been extensively applied to understand the role of fluids in the deep crust and crust-mantle interface. Fluid inclusions trapped within granulite facies rocks have provided important clues on the petrogenesis of dry granulite facies rocks through the influx of CO2-rich fluids from sub-lithospheric sources. CO2-rich fluid inclusions were also recorded from a number of ultrahigh-temperature granulite facies terranes suggesting the involvement of CO2 in extreme crustal metamorphism. Some recent studies speculate that CO2 derived by sub-solidus decarbonation reactions during extreme metamorphism has contributed to the deglaciation of the snowball Earth (Santosh and Omori, 2008).

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For CE 370 students : Your second midterm exam will be on Wednesday 27 March 2019. In the surveying lab

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Mining Engineering


Mining engineering is an engineering discipline that involves practice, theory, science, technology, and the application of extracting and processing minerals from a naturally occurring environment. Mining engineering also includes processing minerals for additional value.

Environmental Engineering


Environmental engineers are the technical professionals who identify and design solutions for    environmental problems. Environmental engineers provide safe drinking water, treat and properly dispose of wastes, maintain air quality, control water pollution, and remediate sites contaminated due to spills or improper disposal of hazardous substances. They monitor the quality of the air, water, and land. And, they develop new and improved means to protect the environment.

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  2. Surveying II  CE 371
  3. Senior Design II  (round 6) CE 499




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Member of the Editorial Board: " Journal of Water Resources and Ocean Sciences"  2013 till now

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Participating in The Third International Conference on Water, Energy and Environment,(ICWEE) 2019 - American University of Sharjah, UAE 26-28 March 2019 with a Paper and Poster

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2nd Midterm Exams on 3/4/2019

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2018-2019-2




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Second Best paper from Senior Design Projects in 2015

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Evaluation of Groundwater Quality Parameters using Multivariate Statistics- a case Study of Majmaah, KSA

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Abdullah A. Alzeer

Husam K. Almubark

Maijd M. Almotairi

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Civil and Environmental Engineering Department
College of Engineering, Majmaah University
Majmaah, P.O. 66, 11952, KSA

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