Dr. SaMeH S. Ahmed

Associate Prof. of Environmental Engineering

Headlands and bays

Headlands and bays

Headlands and bays are two related features of the coastal environment

Geology and geography

Headlands and bays are often found on the same coastline. A bay is surrounded by land on three sides, whereas a headland is surrounded by water on three sides. Headlands are characterized by high, breaking waves, rocky shores, intense erosion, and steep sea cliffs. Bays generally have less wave (and often wind) activity than the water outside the bay, and typically have sandy beaches. Headlands and bays form on discordant coastlines, where bands of rock of alternating resistance run perpendicular to the coast. Bays form where weak (less resistant) rocks (such as sands and clays) are eroded, leaving bands of stronger (more resistant) rocks (such as chalklimestonegranite) forming a headland, or peninsula. This difference in the rate of erosion is caused by differential erosion. Refraction of waves occurs on headlands concentrating wave energy on them, so many other landforms, such ascavesnatural arches and stacks, form on headlands. Wave energy is directed at right angles to the wave crest and lines drawn at right angles to the wave crest (orthogonals) represent the direction of energy expenditure. Orthogonals converge on headlands and diverge in bays which concentrates wave energy on the headlands and dissipating wave energy in the bays.[1] In the formation of sea cliffs, wave erosion undercuts the slopes at the shoreline and they retreat landward. This increases the shear stress in the cliff-forming material and accelerates mass movement.[1] The debris from these landslides collects at the base of the cliff and are also removed by the waves, usually during storms where wave energy is greatest. This debris provides sediment, transported through longshore current for the nearby bay. Joints in the headlands are eroded back to form caves which erode further to form arches. These gaps eventually collapse and leave tall stacks at the ends of the headlands. Eventually these too are eroded by the waves.[2] Wave refraction disperses wave energy through the bay, and along with the sheltering effect of the headlands this protects bays from storms. This effect means that the waves reaching the shore in a bay are weaker than the waves reaching the headland and the bay is thus a safer place for water activities like surfing or swimming. Through the deposition of sediment within the bay and the erosion of the headlands, coastlines eventually straighten out then start the same process all over again.

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As we approaching the second midterm exams..  Get ready and remember our offices are open to answer you . do not hesitate to .contact me if you have difficulties

For CE 370 students : I do apologize for did not attend the extra lab session that proposed to be on Wednesday at 6 am.  Sorry

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Please visit the  announcement box for the relevant course and make sure that you can download and upload easily, otherwise

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There will be an orientation session in the midell of this term to help you select your track in Civil and Environmental Engineering


Special Issue

Electrical Power Resources: Coal versus Renewable Energy

  Published Online on January 2016

Mining Engineering

Mining engineering is an engineering discipline that involves practice, theory, science, technology, and the application of extracting and processing minerals from a naturally occurring environment. Mining engineering also includes processing minerals for additional value.

Environmental Engineering

Environmental engineers are the technical professionals who identify and design solutions for    environmental problems. Environmental engineers provide safe drinking water, treat and properly dispose of wastes, maintain air quality, control water pollution, and remediate sites contaminated due to spills or improper disposal of hazardous substances. They monitor the quality of the air, water, and land. And, they develop new and improved means to protect the environment.


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Universities I've worked in

Assuit University (Home University), Egypt

Imperial College, London, UK

Faculty of Engineering, Al-Mergeb University, Libya

King Saud University, KSA

,Majmaah University

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Course 2016/17-1

  1. Computer Applications in Surveying  CE 473
  2. Surveying 1 CE 370
  3. Photogrammetry CE 474
  4. Surveying II  CE 371
  5. Design I  (round 4) CE 498

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Member of the Editorial Board: " Journal of Water Resources and Ocean Sciences"  2013


Participating in The Third International Conference on Water, Energy and Environment,(ICWEE) 2015 - American University of Sharjah, UAE 24-26 March 2015 with a Paper and Poster

New article

Recovery of Titania from Waste-Sludge of Majmaah Water Treatment Plant

"Production of Titania Nano-particles from Wast-


Coming soon

Results of M2 CE311

Student Conference

Participation  in the 6Th Student Conference

With a paper and oral presentation

From the Senior Design Project CE499 -35

See inside, the paper, and presentation

CE 370 Course

Surveying  I -  CE 370 - 2016-2017-1

Power point


Lecture notes

Second Midterm Exam


Model Answer
Inside, please follow:

Student Performance Records

CE 371 Course

Surveying II - CE 371 - 2016-2017-1


First midterm exam



See Inside

Student Performance Records

CE473 Course

Computer Applications in Surveying

CE 473


Power point


Exams + Quizzes


CE 474 Course

2015-2016-2 - Photogrammetry  CE474

Available 0-1-2-3-4 Power point


Quizzes 2 and 3 with model Answer

Available Chapter 1,2,3,4,5 Lecture notes

Report 1  Cameras Report


60 marks Exams

See Inside

Student Performance Records

CE 360 Course

Environmental Engineering 1

CE 360: Environmental Engineering 1


Y PP0-1-2-3,4 Power point
Y 1,2,3,4,5 Chapters

Water quality Poster + Climate Change Reports
will be announced (Quiz #2 will be using D2L- Online Quizzes


Quizzez 2,3 and 4 with model answer and results Exams and results

GE 306 Course

Engineering Report Writing

GE 306: Engineering Report Writing

CE 499 Course

Senior Design 2 - CE 499

Meeting on 14-4-2015

Second Best paper from Senior Design Projects in 2015

Paper title:

Evaluation of Groundwater Quality Parameters using Multivariate Statistics- a case Study of Majmaah, KSA


Abdullah A. Alzeer

Husam K. Almubark

Maijd M. Almotairi

CE 360-Summer Course

Environmental Engineering I

Welcome to CE360 second Term 2015-2016 

Engineering Practice

 Engineering Practice GE 307

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Civil and Environmental Engineering Department
College of Engineering, Majmaah University
Majmaah, P.O. 66, 11952, KSA

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Your frequent visit to my website has helped  a lot to get the 2nd place in the university competition in the  year 1434-2013... Thanks very mush and please keep following my work

زيارتكم المتكررة لموقعي ساهمت في حصولي على المركز الثاني لاحسن المواقع الشخصية بجامعة المجمعة ...لكم جميعا خالص شكري وتقديري

CE 212 - Summer Course

Properties and Strength of Materials 1

CE 212

Y from PP0 to PP 6 + PDF Power points
Y Midterm #2 + Model Answer + results Exams
Y lab 3 Labs

Solution of Quiz 4 + Results HW

CE 311- Summer Course

Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering

CE 311

M2+ model Answer + PP 1-9 = PDF 1-9 all are available

Sheets 2 + 4 with model Answers

Results of M2

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