Dr. SaMeH S. Ahmed

Associate Prof. of Environmental Engineering

Measuring porosity

Measuring porosity

Several methods can be employed to measure porosity:

  • Direct methods (determining the bulk volume of the porous sample, and then determining the volume of the skeletal material with no pores (pore volume = total volume − material volume).
  • Optical methods (e.g., determining the area of the material versus the area of the pores visible under the microscope). The "areal" and "volumetric" porosities are equal for porous media with random structure.[4]
  • Computed tomography method (using industrial CT scanning to create a 3D rendering of external and internal geometry, including voids. Then implementing a defect analysis utilizing computer software)
  • Imbibition methods,[4] i.e., immersion of the porous sample, under vacuum, in a fluid that preferentially wets the pores.
    • Water saturation method (pore volume = total volume of water − volume of water left after soaking).
  • Water evaporation method (pore volume = (weight of saturated sample − weight of dried sample)/density of water)
  • Mercury intrusion porosimetry (several non-mercury intrusion techniques have been developed due to toxicological concerns, and the fact that mercury tends to form amalgams with several metals and alloys).
  • Gas expansion method.[4] A sample of known bulk volume is enclosed in a container of known volume. It is connected to another container with a known volume which is evacuated (i.e., near vacuum pressure). When a valve connecting the two containers is opened, gas passes from the first container to the second until a uniform pressure distribution is attained. Using ideal gas law, the volume of the pores is calculated as
V_V = V_T-V_a-V_b {P_2 over {P_2-P_1}},


VV is the effective volume of the pores,
VT is the bulk volume of the sample,
Va is the volume of the container containing the sample,
Vb is the volume of the evacuated container,
P1 is the initial pressure in the initial pressure in volume Va and VV, and
P2 is final pressure present in the entire system.
The porosity follows straightforwardly by its proper definition
phi = frac{V_V}{V_T}.
Note that this method assumes that gas communicates between the pores and the surrounding volume. In practice, this means that the pores must not be closed cavities.
  • Thermoporosimetry and cryoporometry. A small crystal of a liquid melts at a lower temperature than the bulk liquid, as given by the Gibbs-Thomson equation. Thus if a liquid is imbibed into a porous material, and frozen, the melting temperature will provide information on the pore-size distribution. The detection of the melting can be done by sensing the transient heat flows during phase-changes using differential scanning calorimetry - (DSC thermoporometry),[5] measuring the quantity of mobile liquid using nuclear magnetic resonance - (NMR cryoporometry)[6] or measuring the amplitude of neutron scattering from the imbibed crystalline or liquid phases - (ND cryoporometry).

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Mining Engineering

Mining engineering is an engineering discipline that involves practice, theory, science, technology, and the application of extracting and processing minerals from a naturally occurring environment. Mining engineering also includes processing minerals for additional value.

Environmental Engineering

Environmental engineers are the technical professionals who identify and design solutions for    environmental problems. Environmental engineers provide safe drinking water, treat and properly dispose of wastes, maintain air quality, control water pollution, and remediate sites contaminated due to spills or improper disposal of hazardous substances. They monitor the quality of the air, water, and land. And, they develop new and improved means to protect the environment.


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Assuit University (Home University), Egypt

Imperial College, London, UK

Faculty of Engineering, Al-Mergeb University, Libya

King Saud University, KSA

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Course 2016/17-1

  1. Computer Applications in Surveying  CE 473
  2. Surveying 1 CE 370
  3. Photogrammetry CE 474
  4. Surveying II  CE 371
  5. Design I  (round 4) CE 498

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Member of the Editorial Board: " Journal of Water Resources and Ocean Sciences"  2013


Participating in The Third International Conference on Water, Energy and Environment,(ICWEE) 2015 - American University of Sharjah, UAE 24-26 March 2015 with a Paper and Poster

New article

Recovery of Titania from Waste-Sludge of Majmaah Water Treatment Plant

"Production of Titania Nano-particles from Wast-


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Results of M2 CE311

Student Conference

Participation  in the 6Th Student Conference

With a paper and oral presentation

From the Senior Design Project CE499 -35

See inside, the paper, and presentation

CE 370 Course

Surveying  I -  CE 370 - 2016-2017-1

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Lecture notes

Second Midterm Exam


Model Answer
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CE 371 Course

Surveying II - CE 371 - 2016-2017-1


First midterm exam



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Student Performance Records

CE473 Course

Computer Applications in Surveying

CE 473


Power point


Exams + Quizzes


CE 474 Course

2015-2016-2 - Photogrammetry  CE474

Available 0-1-2-3-4 Power point


Quizzes 2 and 3 with model Answer

Available Chapter 1,2,3,4,5 Lecture notes

Report 1  Cameras Report


60 marks Exams

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Student Performance Records

CE 360 Course

Environmental Engineering 1

CE 360: Environmental Engineering 1


Y PP0-1-2-3,4 Power point
Y 1,2,3,4,5 Chapters

Water quality Poster + Climate Change Reports
will be announced (Quiz #2 will be using D2L- Online Quizzes


Quizzez 2,3 and 4 with model answer and results Exams and results

GE 306 Course

Engineering Report Writing

GE 306: Engineering Report Writing

CE 499 Course

Senior Design 2 - CE 499

Meeting on 14-4-2015

Second Best paper from Senior Design Projects in 2015

Paper title:

Evaluation of Groundwater Quality Parameters using Multivariate Statistics- a case Study of Majmaah, KSA


Abdullah A. Alzeer

Husam K. Almubark

Maijd M. Almotairi

CE 360-Summer Course

Environmental Engineering I

Welcome to CE360 second Term 2015-2016 

Engineering Practice

 Engineering Practice GE 307

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Civil and Environmental Engineering Department
College of Engineering, Majmaah University
Majmaah, P.O. 66, 11952, KSA

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CE 212 - Summer Course

Properties and Strength of Materials 1

CE 212

Y from PP0 to PP 6 + PDF Power points
Y Midterm #2 + Model Answer + results Exams
Y lab 3 Labs

Solution of Quiz 4 + Results HW

CE 311- Summer Course

Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering

CE 311

M2+ model Answer + PP 1-9 = PDF 1-9 all are available

Sheets 2 + 4 with model Answers

Results of M2

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