Dr. SaMeH S. Ahmed

Civil and Environmental Engineering Department

Plutonium


Plutonium


plutonium - a heavy, radioactiveman-made, metallic element (atomic number 94) used in the production of nuclear energy and the explosion of nuclear weapons; its most important isotope is fissile plutonium-239



is a transuranic radioactive chemical element with the chemical symbol Pu andatomic number 94. It is an actinide metal of silvery-gray appearance that tarnishes when exposed to air, forming a dull coating whenoxidized. The element normally exhibits six allotropes and four oxidation states. It reacts with carbonhalogensnitrogen andsilicon. When exposed to moist air, it forms oxides and hydrides that expand the sample up to 70% in volume, which in turn flake off as a powder that can spontaneously ignite. It is also radioactive and can accumulate in the bones. These properties make the handling of plutonium dangerous.

Plutonium is the heaviest primordial element by virtue of its most stable isotopeplutonium-244, whose half-life of about 80 million years is just long enough for the element to be found in trace quantities in nature.[3] Plutonium is mostly a byproduct of nuclear fission in reactors where some of the neutrons released by the fission process convert uranium-238 nuclei into plutonium.[4]

One utilized isotope of plutonium is plutonium-239, which has a half-life of 24,100 years. Plutonium-239 along with plutonium-241 are both fissile, meaning the nuclei of their atoms can split when bombarded by thermal neutrons, releasing energy, gamma radiation and more neutrons. These neutrons can sustain a nuclear chain reaction, leading to applications in nuclear weapons andnuclear reactors.

Plutonium-238 has a half-life of 88 years and emits alpha particles. It is a heat source in radioisotope thermoelectric generators, which are used to power some spacecraftPlutonium-240 has a high rate of spontaneous fission, raising the neutron flux of any sample it is in. The presence of plutonium-240 limits a sample's usability for weapons or reactor fuel, and determines its grade. Plutonium isotopes are expensive and inconvenient to separate, so particular isotopes are usually manufactured in specialized reactors.

Plutonium was first synthesized in 1940 by a team led by Glenn T. Seaborg and Edwin McMillan at the University of California, Berkeley laboratory by bombarding uranium-238 with deuterons. Trace amounts of plutonium were subsequently discovered in nature. Producing plutonium in useful quantities for the first time was a major part of the Manhattan Project during World War II, which developed the first atomic bombs. The first nuclear test, "Trinity" (July 1945), and the second atomic bomb used to destroy a city (Nagasaki, Japan, in August 1945), "Fat Man", both had cores of plutonium-239. Human radiation experiments studying plutonium were conducted without informed consent, and a number of criticality accidents, some lethal, occurred during and after the war. Disposal of plutonium waste from nuclear power plants and dismantled nuclear weapons built during the Cold War is anuclear-proliferation and environmental concern. Other sources of plutonium in the environment are fallout from numerous above-ground nuclear tests (now banned).

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Time Table 2018-19S


Civil Eng. Students


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As we approaching the second midterm exams..  Get ready and remember our offices are open to answer you . do not hesitate to .contact me if you have difficulties

For CE 370 students : Your second midterm exam will be on Wednesday 27 March 2019. In the surveying lab

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Mining Engineering


Mining engineering is an engineering discipline that involves practice, theory, science, technology, and the application of extracting and processing minerals from a naturally occurring environment. Mining engineering also includes processing minerals for additional value.

Environmental Engineering


Environmental engineers are the technical professionals who identify and design solutions for    environmental problems. Environmental engineers provide safe drinking water, treat and properly dispose of wastes, maintain air quality, control water pollution, and remediate sites contaminated due to spills or improper disposal of hazardous substances. They monitor the quality of the air, water, and land. And, they develop new and improved means to protect the environment.

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Universities I've worked in


Assuit University (Home University), Egypt


Imperial College, London, UK


Faculty of Engineering, Al-Mergeb University, Libya


King Saud University, KSA

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Ahly vs Zamalek, 30 March 2019

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Course 2018/19-2


  1. Surveying 1 CE 370
  2. Surveying II  CE 371
  3. Senior Design II  (round 6) CE 499




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Member of the Editorial Board: " Journal of Water Resources and Ocean Sciences"  2013 till now

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Sameh_Ahmed5/?ev=hdr_xprf

Participating in The Third International Conference on Water, Energy and Environment,(ICWEE) 2019 - American University of Sharjah, UAE 26-28 March 2019 with a Paper and Poster

New article


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2nd Midterm Exams on 3/4/2019

Student Conference



Participation  in the 6Th Student Conference

With a paper and oral presentation

From the Senior Design Project CE499 -35

See inside, the paper, and presentation

CE 370 Course

Surveying I

2018-2019S




Power point


Sheets


Lecture notes
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3-4-2019

:Second Midterm Exam



Results


Model Answer
Inside, please follow

Working  marks is available -Click on Surveying I

CE 371 Course

Surveying II

2018-2019-2




Lectures





First midterm exam


Lab


Results

See Inside

Working marks out of 60 is  available- Click on Surveying 2

CE 474 Course

Photogrammetry

2018-2019-1



Available 0-1-2-3-4 Power point

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Quizzes 2 and 3 with model Answer

Quizzes
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Report 1  Cameras Report

Y

60 marks Exams

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Student Performance Records


CE 499 Course

Senior Design 2


Second Best paper from Senior Design Projects in 2015

Paper title:

Evaluation of Groundwater Quality Parameters using Multivariate Statistics- a case Study of Majmaah, KSA

Students:

Abdullah A. Alzeer

Husam K. Almubark

Maijd M. Almotairi

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Civil and Environmental Engineering Department
College of Engineering, Majmaah University
Majmaah, P.O. 66, 11952, KSA

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