Dr. SaMeH S. Ahmed

Associate Prof. of Environmental Engineering

Sedimentary facies

Sedimentary facies


Sedimentary environments usually exist alongside each other in certain natural successions. A beach, where sand and gravel is deposited, is usually bounded by a deeper marine environment a little offshore, where finer sediments are deposited at the same time. Behind the beach, there can be dunes (where the dominant deposition is well sorted sand) or a lagoon (where fine clay and organic material is deposited). Every sedimentary environment has its own characteristic deposits. The typical rock formed in a certain environment is called its sedimentary facies. When sedimentary strata accumulate through time, the environment can shift, forming a change in facies in the subsurface at one location. On the other hand, when a rock layer with a certain age is followed laterally, the lithology (the type of rock) and facies eventually change.]

Shifting sedimentary facies in the case of transgression(above) and regression of the sea (below)

Facies can be distinguished in a number of ways: the most common ways are by the lithology (for example: limestone, siltstone or sandstone) or by fossil content. Coral for example only lives in warm and shallow marine environments and fossils of coral are thus typical for shallow marine facies. Facies determined by lithology are called lithofacies; facies determined by fossils are biofacies.[44]

Sedimentary environments can shift their geographical positions through time. Coastlines can shift in the direction of the sea when the sea level drops, when the surface rises due to tectonic forces in the Earth's crust or when a river forms a large delta. In the subsurface, such geographic shifts of sedimentary environments of the past are recorded in shifts in sedimentary facies. This means that sedimentary facies can change either parallel or perpendicular to an imaginary layer of rock with a fixed age, a phenomenon described by Walther's facies rule]

The situation in which coastlines move in the direction of the continent is called transgression. In the case of transgression, deeper marine facies are deposited over shallower facies, a succession called onlapRegression is the situation in which a coastline moves in the direction of the sea. With regression, shallower facies are deposited on top of deeper facies, a situation called off lap.]

The facies of all rocks of a certain age can be plotted on a map to give an overview of the palaeogeography. A sequence of maps for different ages can give an insight in the development of the regional geography.

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Mining Engineering

Mining engineering is an engineering discipline that involves practice, theory, science, technology, and the application of extracting and processing minerals from a naturally occurring environment. Mining engineering also includes processing minerals for additional value.

Environmental Engineering

Environmental engineers are the technical professionals who identify and design solutions for    environmental problems. Environmental engineers provide safe drinking water, treat and properly dispose of wastes, maintain air quality, control water pollution, and remediate sites contaminated due to spills or improper disposal of hazardous substances. They monitor the quality of the air, water, and land. And, they develop new and improved means to protect the environment.


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  1. Computer Applications in Surveying  CE 473
  2. Surveying 1 CE 370
  3. Photogrammetry CE 474
  4. Surveying II  CE 371
  5. Design I  (round 4) CE 498

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Participating in The Third International Conference on Water, Energy and Environment,(ICWEE) 2015 - American University of Sharjah, UAE 24-26 March 2015 with a Paper and Poster

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2015-2016-2 - Photogrammetry  CE474

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Environmental Engineering 1

CE 360: Environmental Engineering 1


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Evaluation of Groundwater Quality Parameters using Multivariate Statistics- a case Study of Majmaah, KSA


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Husam K. Almubark

Maijd M. Almotairi

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Environmental Engineering I

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Civil and Environmental Engineering Department
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