Dr. SaMeH S. Ahmed

Civil and Environmental Engineering Department

Toxin


Toxin

toxin (from Ancient Greekτοξικόν toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms;[1][2] man-made substances created by artificial processes are thus excluded. The term was first used by organic chemist Ludwig Brieger (1849–1919).[3]

For a toxic substance not produced within living organisms, "toxicant" and "toxics" are also sometimes used.].

Toxins can be small moleculespeptides, or proteins that are capable of causing disease on contact with or absorption by body tissuesinteracting with biological macromolecules such as enzymes or cellular receptors. Toxins vary greatly in their severity, ranging from usually minor and acute (as in a bee sting) to almost immediately deadly (as in botulinum toxin).


Terminology

Toxins are often distinguished from other chemical agents by their method of production - the word toxin does not specify method of delivery (compare with venom and the narrower meaning of poison – all substances that can also cause disturbances to organisms). It simply means it is a biologically produced poison. There was an ongoing terminological dispute between NATO and the Warsaw Pact over whether to call a toxin a biological or chemical agent, in which the NATO opted for biological agent, and the Warsaw Pact, like most other countries in the world, for chemical agent.]

According to a International Committee of the Red Cross review of the Biological Weapons Convention, "Toxins are poisonous products of organisms; unlike biological agents, they are inanimate and not capable of reproducing themselves." and "Since the signing of the Convention, there have been no disputes among the parties regarding the definition of biological agents or toxins..."]

According to Title 18 of the United States Code, "...the term "toxin" means the toxic material or product of plantsanimalsmicroorganisms (including, but not limited to, bacteria,virusesfungirickettsiae or protozoa), or infectious substances, or a recombinant or synthesized molecule, whatever their origin and method of production..."]

A rather informal terminology of individual toxins relate them to the anatomical location where their effects are most notable:

On a broader scale, toxins may be classified as either exotoxins, being excreted by an organism, and endotoxins, that are released mainly when bacteria are lysed...

Related terms are:

  • Toxoid, weakened or suppressed toxin
  • Venom, toxins in the sense of use by certain types of animals

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As we approaching the second midterm exams..  Get ready and remember our offices are open to answer you . do not hesitate to .contact me if you have difficulties

For CE 370 students : Your second midterm exam will be on Wednesday 27 March 2019. In the surveying lab

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Mining Engineering


Mining engineering is an engineering discipline that involves practice, theory, science, technology, and the application of extracting and processing minerals from a naturally occurring environment. Mining engineering also includes processing minerals for additional value.

Environmental Engineering


Environmental engineers are the technical professionals who identify and design solutions for    environmental problems. Environmental engineers provide safe drinking water, treat and properly dispose of wastes, maintain air quality, control water pollution, and remediate sites contaminated due to spills or improper disposal of hazardous substances. They monitor the quality of the air, water, and land. And, they develop new and improved means to protect the environment.

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Course 2018/19-2


  1. Surveying 1 CE 370
  2. Surveying II  CE 371
  3. Senior Design II  (round 6) CE 499




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Member of the Editorial Board: " Journal of Water Resources and Ocean Sciences"  2013 till now

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Sameh_Ahmed5/?ev=hdr_xprf

Participating in The Third International Conference on Water, Energy and Environment,(ICWEE) 2019 - American University of Sharjah, UAE 26-28 March 2019 with a Paper and Poster

New article


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2nd Midterm Exams on 3/4/2019

Student Conference



Participation  in the 6Th Student Conference

With a paper and oral presentation

From the Senior Design Project CE499 -35

See inside, the paper, and presentation

CE 370 Course

Surveying I

2018-2019S




Power point


Sheets


Lecture notes
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3-4-2019

:Second Midterm Exam



Results


Model Answer
Inside, please follow

Working  marks is available -Click on Surveying I

CE 371 Course

Surveying II

2018-2019-2




Lectures





First midterm exam


Lab


Results

See Inside

Working marks out of 60 is  available- Click on Surveying 2

CE 474 Course

Photogrammetry

2018-2019-1



Available 0-1-2-3-4 Power point

Available

Quizzes 2 and 3 with model Answer

Quizzes
Available Chapter 1,2,3,4,5 Lecture notes

Report 1  Cameras Report

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60 marks Exams

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Student Performance Records


CE 499 Course

Senior Design 2


Second Best paper from Senior Design Projects in 2015

Paper title:

Evaluation of Groundwater Quality Parameters using Multivariate Statistics- a case Study of Majmaah, KSA

Students:

Abdullah A. Alzeer

Husam K. Almubark

Maijd M. Almotairi

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Civil and Environmental Engineering Department
College of Engineering, Majmaah University
Majmaah, P.O. 66, 11952, KSA

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