Dr. SaMeH S. Ahmed

Civil and Environmental Engineering Department

Ventilation1


Ventilation



Underground mine ventilation provides a flow of air to the underground workings of a mine of sufficient volume to dilute and removenoxious gases (typically NOxSO2methaneCO2 and CO). The source of these gases are equipment that runs on diesel engines, blasting with explosives[1] and the orebody itself. [2] The largest component of the operating cost for mine ventilation is electricity to power the ventilation fans, which may account for one third of a typical underground mine's entire electrical power cost


Types of ventilation

Flow-through ventilation is the main ventilation circuit for the mine. Air enters the mine from surface via a shaftventilation raise or adit. The air is distributed through the mine via internal ventilation raises and ramps, and flows are controlled by regulators and permanently mounted ventilation fans. An Auxiliary ventilation system takes air from the flow-through system and distributes it to the mine workings via temporarily mounted ventilation fans, venturies and disposable fabric, or steel ducting.

[edit]Regulations

The volume (expressed in cubic feet per minute or cubic meters per second) of air required to ventilate an underground mine is determined by mining- or geotechnical-engineers. It may also be regulated by the local governing body. However in some developing countries the mandated ventilation requirement may be insufficient, and the mining company may have to increase the ventilation flow, in particular where ventilation may be required to cool the ambient temperature in a deep hot mine.[1] One method to arrange ventilation is to place huge burner on the bottom of the vertical hole. Heated air rises up and the replacing air brings fresh air to the mine.[3]

[edit]Heating

In temperate climates ventilation air may require to be heated during winter months. This will make the working environment more hospitable for miners, and prevent freezing of workings, in particular water pipes. In Arctic mines where the mining horizon is above the permafrost heating may not take place to prevent melting the permafrost. "Cold mines" such as Raglan Mine and Nanisivik Mine are designed to operate below zero degrees Celsius.[


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Mining Engineering


Mining engineering is an engineering discipline that involves practice, theory, science, technology, and the application of extracting and processing minerals from a naturally occurring environment. Mining engineering also includes processing minerals for additional value.

Environmental Engineering


Environmental engineers are the technical professionals who identify and design solutions for    environmental problems. Environmental engineers provide safe drinking water, treat and properly dispose of wastes, maintain air quality, control water pollution, and remediate sites contaminated due to spills or improper disposal of hazardous substances. They monitor the quality of the air, water, and land. And, they develop new and improved means to protect the environment.

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Evaluation of Groundwater Quality Parameters using Multivariate Statistics- a case Study of Majmaah, KSA

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Civil and Environmental Engineering Department
College of Engineering, Majmaah University
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